Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the 30 Pima Indian participants with type 2 diabetes and elevated GFR at baseline,a according to period of follow-upb

Clinical CharacteristicPeriod of Follow-Up
BaselineFirstSecondThird
Female gender (%)19 (63%)
Age (yr)40 ± 941 ± 942 ± 943 ± 9
BMI33.0 ± 7.032.4 ± 6.932.8 ± 7.432.2 ± 7.0
ACR (mg/g)c103 (49 to 228)80.3 (44 to 601)109 (63 to 497)121 (36 to 992)
Iothalamate clearance
    Standardized (ml/min per 1.73 m2)153 ± 27146 ± 33137 ± 36136 ± 42
    Unstandardized (ml/min)176 ± 40163 ± 39154 ± 44152 ± 50
Serum cystatin C
    Concentration (mg/L)0.66 ± 0.140.71 ± 0.280.78 ± 0.350.85 ± 0.58
    100/cystatin C158 ± 34156 ± 44143 ± 39139 ± 42
Serum creatinine
    Concentration (mg/dl)0.72 ± 0.170.71 ± 0.210.75 ± 0.360.93 ± 1.00
    100/creatinine146 ± 32149 ± 34148 ± 40138 ± 39
    Cockroft-Gault (ml/min)d167 ± 60164 ± 60163 ± 66152 ± 54
    MDRD (ml/min per 1.73 m2)e130 ± 32130 ± 35132 ± 42117 ± 36
  • a Defined as a GFR >120 ml/min as determined by iothalamate clearance standardized for BSA.

  • b BMI, body mass index; ACR, albumin to creatinine ratio; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; BSA, body surface area. Data are mean ± SD.

  • c Data are median (interquartile range).

  • d The GFR based on the Cockcroft-Gault formula was estimated by the conventional modified formula [(140 − age in years) × (actual weight in kilograms)/(72 × serum creatinine in mg/dl) × 0.85 (if female)] [(see reference 3)].

  • e The GFR based on the MDRD equation was estimated by the conventional formula for whites [186 × (SCr)−1.154 × (age)−0.203 × (0.742 if female)] [(see reference (25)].