Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants by presence of the metabolic syndromea

CharacteristicMetabolic Syndrome Absent(n = 7986)Metabolic Syndrome Present(n = 2110)P Value
Age (yr)53.5 ±5.754.5 ±5.5<0.001
Male (%)44450.66
Black (%)20210.73
Education ≥12 yr (%)8377<0.001
Alcohol use, current (%)6255<0.001
Tobacco use, current (%)22230.50
Coronary heart disease (%)340.002
Regular physical activity (%)15130.002
BMI (kg/m2)26.2 ±4.530.6 ±5.0<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)92.8 ±12.1105.5 ±11.3<0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg)116.5 ±16.0127.0 ±17.9<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)71.9 ±10.476.9 ±10.7<0.001
Glucose (mg/dl)96.9 ±8.4104.5 ±10.4<0.001
Insulin (μU/ml)8.9 ±6.216.9 ±10.7<0.001
HOMA-insulin resistance1.8 (1.2 to 2.7)3.7 (2.5 to 5.5)<0.001
Cholesterol (mg/dl)211.5 ±39.0221.5 ±43.9<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl)105.1 ±52.7192.5 ±100.3<0.001
HDL (mg/dl)56.1 ±16.840.4 ±10.8<0.001
LDL (mg/dl)134.5 ±37.3144.4 ±39.7<0.001
Creatinine (mg/dl)0.8 ±0.20.9 ±0.20.01
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)93.2 ±19.091.9 ±19.10.006
  • a Results are expressed as means ± SD or, for HOMA-insulin resistance, median (interquartile range). BMI, body mass index; HOMA, Homeostasis Model Assessment; eGFR, estimated GFR.