Table 2.

Clinical studies of protein-leaking membranesa

Author (Reference)End PointsStudy DesignNo. of PatientsPeriod of ObservationComparative Therapy
Niwa et al. (33)CMPF, Hb, HctObservational84 moLow-flux HD
Locatelli et al.(34)HbRandomized843 moLow-flux HD
Stein et al. (35)Pentosidine, AGE–β2-microglobulinObservational206 moHigh-flux HD
Van Tellingen et al. (36)HcyRandomized303 moHigh-flux HD
De Vriese et al. (37)HcyRandomized451 moLow-flux or high-flux HD
Galli et al.(38,40)Hcy, pentosidine, protein carbonyls, AOPP, cytokinesRandomized266 moLow-flux and high-flux HD
Tessitore et al. (39)PentosidineObservational187 moLow-flux HD
  • a CMPF, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid; Hb, hemoglobin; Hct, hematocrit; AGE, advanced glycation end products; Hcy, homocysteine; AOPP, advanced oxidation protein products.