Table 1.

Biochemical characteristics and Wnt4, Wnt5a, phospho-GSK-3β, β-catenin, and TUNEL expression in renal glomerular mesangial cells of diabetic rats with or without BIO treatmenta

CharacteristicNormalDiabetes
VehicleBIO
Biochemical propertiesb
    blood glucose89.8 ± 7.6212.3 ± 19.4d241.4 ± 21.6d
    urinary protein secretion0.7 ± 0.12.0 ± 0.4d0.8 ± 0.6e
Immunohistochemistryc
    Wnt443.4 ± 1.814.5 ± 1.4d15.3 ± 1.9d
    Wnt5a31.9 ± 3.514.1 ± 3.1d16.4 ± 2.6d
    phospho-Ser9-GSK-3β24.8 ± 3.76.7 ± 1.1d18.5 ± 1.4e
    β-catenin34.6 ± 3.911.0 ± 1.2d22.0 ± 0.9e
    TUNEL7.0 ± 1.048.8 ± 2.3d16.1 ± 1.4e
  • a BIO, (2′Z,3′E)-6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime; GSK-3β, glycogen synthase kinase-3β; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling.

  • b Data are means ± SE calculated from six rats. Blood glucose (mg/dl) was measured from tails. Total urinary protein secretion (mg/mg creatinine) was assayed using urine protein kits and normalized with total creatinine level in urine.

  • c Data are means ± SE calculated from percentage of positive immunostained cells in glomeruli per high-power field in three regions from three sections of four rats.

  • P < 0.05,

  • d normal and

  • e diabetic vehicle group.