Table 1.

Baseline characteristics among 39,550 ambulatory non-Hispanic white or Hispanic adults with CKD from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2002a

CharacteristicTotal(n = 39,550)Non-Hispanic White(n = 27,474)Hispanic(n = 12,076)P
Age (yr; mean [SD])66.3 (13.9)68.4 (13.1)61.6 (14.5)<0.001
Women (%)62.363.759.1<0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl; mean [SD])1.32 (0.35)1.31 (0.33)1.36 (0.40)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; %)<0.001
    45 to 5980.580.480.9
    30 to 4415.916.414.8
    15 to 293.63.24.4
Low annual household income (%)11.910.714.6<0.001
Low education level (%)12.77.524.6<0.001
Spanish preferred language (%)5.1NA16.6
Medical history (%)
    coronary heart disease14.216.010.0<0.001
    stroke or transient ischemic attack6.16.94.3<0.001
    peripheral arterial disease4.55.23.1<0.001
    chronic heart failure5.86.73.5<0.001
    known any proteinuria10.38.913.3<0.001
        1+5.65.46.3<0.001
        2+2.21.92.9<0.001
        3+ or 4+2.41.34.1<0.001
    diabetes14.612.120.3<0.001
    hypertension41.141.240.90.60
    dyslipidemia34.233.935.00.04
    chronic lung disease20.321.517.6<0.001
    chronic liver disease0.40.30.40.06
    cancer8.310.14.2<0.001
    serum albumin of 3.5 g/dl or less3.23.32.80.01
    diagnosed dementia1.92.31.0<0.001
    previous hospitalizations29.933.222.2<0.001
Baseline medication useb
    ACE or ARB16.816.817.00.47
    diuretic26.027.622.3<0.001
    β blocker14.715.213.6<0.001
    calcium channel blocker12.813.112.20.009
    statin8.48.87.4<0.001
  • a ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated GFR.

  • b Within 120 d before index date.