Table 2.

Multivariable association between Hispanic ethnicity and the risks for ESRD, any cardiovascular event, and death from any cause among 39,550 ambulatory white or Hispanic adults with stages 3 to 4 CKDa

Model NestedHispanic versus Non-Hispanic White (Adjusted HR [95% CI])
ESRDAny Cardiovascular EventDeath from Any Cause
Unadjusted1.99 (1.78 to 2.21)0.75 (0.69 to 0.80)0.51 (0.47 to 0.54)
+ Age, gender, income, education, and preferred language1.93 (1.72 to 2.17)0.84 (0.78 to 0.91)0.76 (0.71 to 0.82)
+ Hypertension and medical historyb1.74 (1.55 to 1.96)0.87 (0.81 to 0.94)0.78 (0.72 to 0.84)
+ Diabetes and use of insulin1.50 (1.33 to 1.69)0.80 (0.74 to 0.86)0.73 (0.68 to 0.79)
+ Baseline eGFRc and time-updated proteinuria1.29 (1.14 to 1.48)0.80 (0.75 to 0.87)0.71 (0.65 to 0.77)
+ Time-varying medication used1.33 (1.17 to 1.52)0.81 (0.75 to 0.87)0.71 (0.65 to 0.77)
  • a CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.

  • b Includes coronary heart disease, stroke or transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial disease, chronic heart failure, dyslipidemia, chronic lung disease, chronic liver disease, systemic cancer, serum albumin of 3.5 g/dl or less, and previous hospitalizations.

  • c Baseline Modification of Diet in Renal Disease eGFR in ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • d Includes ACE inhibitors, ARB, diuretics, β blockers, calcium channel blockers, and statins and are included as time-dependent covariates.