Table 1.

Baseline characteristics, overall and by level of baseline proteinuria and baseline GFRa

VariableAll Patients(n = 1094)Baseline UP/Cr ≤0.22(n = 733)Baseline UP/Cr >0.22(n = 357)Baseline GFR >40 ml/min per 1.73 m2(n = 718)Baseline GFR ≤40 ml/min per 1.73 m2(n = 376)
UP/Cr (n = 1090)0.33 ± 0.520.06 ± 0.050.87 ± 0.61b0.19 ± 0.380.59 ± 0.64b
Baseline GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)46.4 ± 13.650.2 ± 12.338.7 ± 13.0b54.7 ± 8.030.5 ± 5.8b
Age at randomization (yr)54.6 ± 10.756.2 ± 9.951.2 ± 11.4b55.4 ± 10.453.1 ± 11.1b
Female gender424 (38.8)295 (40.2)129 (36.1)257 (35.8)167 (44.4)b
Income status
    $0 to $14,999521 (47.6)356 (48.6)163 (45.7)330 (46.0)191 (50.8)
    $15,000+370 (33.8)253 (34.5)116 (32.5)258 (35.9)112 (29.8)
    declined to provide information203 (18.6)124 (16.9)78 (21.8)130 (18.1)73 (19.4)
Not a high school graduate (n = 1092)444 (40.7)326 (44.5)117 (32.9)b296 (41.3)148 (39.5)
Smoking status
    current smoker321 (29.3)204 (27.8)115 (32.2)211 (29.4)110 (29.3)
    past smoker312 (28.5)213 (29.1)98 (27.5)215 (29.9)97 (25.8)
    never smoked461 (42.1)316 (43.1)144 (40.3)292 (40.7)169 (44.9)
History of heart disease564 (51.6)377 (51.4)184 (51.5)367 (51.1)197 (52.4)
Familial diagnosis of ESRD140 (12.8)92 (12.6)48 (13.4)88 (12.3)52 (13.8)
Parental diagnosis of hypertension756 (69.1)503 (68.6)251 (70.3)488 (68.0)268 (71.3)
Years with hypertension (n = 1084)14.2 ± 10.114.7 ± 10.513.1 ± 9.414.3 ± 9.913.8 ± 10.5
Height (cm)171 ± 10171 ± 10172 ± 10171 ± 10170 ± 10
Body weight (kg)89.5 ± 20.787.7 ± 19.993.1 ± 21.8b90.2 ± 19.788.0 ± 22.5
BMI (kg/m2)30.6 ± 6.630.1 ± 6.331.5 ± 7.0b30.7 ± 6.230.3 ± 7.3
SBP (mmHg)150 ± 24148 ± 24156 ± 23b149 ± 24153 ± 24
DBP (mmHg)96 ± 1494 ± 1498 ± 15b95 ± 1496 ± 15
MAP (mmHg)114 ± 16112 ± 16117 ± 16b113 ± 16115 ± 16
Pulse pressure (mmHg)55 ± 1753 ± 1758 ± 17b54 ± 1857 ± 17b
Evidence of LVH420 (38.4)280 (38.2)137 (38.4)279 (38.9)141 (37.5)
Abnormal ECG880 (80.4)577 (78.7)300 (84.0)568 (79.1)312 (83.0)
Serum urea nitrogen (mg/dl)24.2 ± 9.722.4 ± 8.528.1 ± 10.8b20.1 ± 5.832.1 ± 10.6b
Hematocrit (%; n = 1092)39.4 ± 4.939.7 ± 4.738.8 ± 5.5b40.4 ± 4.637.5 ± 5.0b
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)2.00 ± 0.701.80 ± 0.542.41 ± 0.80b1.66 ± 0.372.64 ± 0.73b
Albumin (g/dl)4.23 ± 0.324.30 ± 0.304.09 ± 0.33b4.28 ± 0.304.14 ± 0.34b
Glucose (mg/dl)94.0 ± 15.894.2 ± 16.093.6 ± 15.494.7 ± 16.392.6 ± 14.8
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) (n = 1084)212 ± 45210 ± 44214 ± 49212 ± 44211 ± 48
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (n = 1084)48 ± 1648 ± 1648 ± 1748 ± 1648 ± 17
Total minus HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (n = 1081)163 ± 45162 ± 43166 ± 49164 ± 44163 ± 48
Triglycerides (mg/dl) (n = 843)140 ± 81134 ± 70153 ± 99b137 ± 77146 ± 87
Uric acid (mg/dl)8.3 ± 1.98.1 ± 1.88.7 ± 1.8b8.0 ± 1.88.9 ± 1.8b
Calcium × phosphorus (mg2/dl2)31.9 ± 5.231.5 ± 5.332.8 ± 4.9b31.2 ± 5.133.4 ± 5.1b
Phosphorus (mg/dl)3.52 ± 0.563.45 ± 0.553.66 ± 0.55b3.41 ± 0.543.72 ± 0.55b
Urine total volume (L) (n = 1093)2.21 ± 0.942.11 ± 0.932.42 ± 0.94b2.17 ± 0.942.29 ± 0.94
Urine creatinine (g/d) (n = 1090)1.61 ± 0.641.60 ± 0.651.65 ± 0.631.69 ± 0.661.48 ± 0.58b
Urine creatinine/weight (mg/d per kg) (n = 1090)18 ± 618 ± 618 ± 619 ± 617 ± 6b
Urine urea nitrogen (g/d) (n = 1093)8.29 ± 3.798.25 ± 3.708.35 ± 3.958.72 ± 3.937.47 ± 3.35b
Urine sodium (g/d) (n = 1093)3.68 ± 1.983.56 ± 1.953.95 ± 2.02b3.76 ± 2.013.54 ± 1.92
Urine sodium/potassium (n = 1093)2.27 ± 1.192.26 ± 1.222.31 ± 1.132.26 ± 1.212.30 ± 1.16
  • a Data are means ± SD for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables. Total sample size is 1094 unless indicated otherwise in the first column. Abnormal ECG findings were defined in response to the following question: Is the ECG completely normal, yes or no? LVH was defined by voltage criteria, V1 + V5 or V6 >35 mm, or V5 or V6 >25 mm. BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic BP; ECG, electrocardiogram; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SBP, systolic BP; UP/Cr, urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio.

  • b P < 0.01 in baseline factors between the lower (UP/Cr ≤ 0.22) and upper (UP/Cr > 0.22) proteinuria groups or between the lower (GFR ≤ 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and upper (GFR > 40 ml/min per 1.73 m2) GFR groups.