Table 3.

Association of risk for GFR event or ESRD with baseline factorsa

Baseline FactorsAdjusting for Randomized Group, Baseline GFR, Age, and GenderAdjusting for Randomized Group, Baseline GFR, Age, Gender, and UP/Cr
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
UP/Cr (doubling)b1.47 (1.38 to 1.58)<0.0001
Serum creatinine (0.5 mg/dl)b1.54 (1.35 to 1.75)<0.00011.52 (1.33 to 1.75)<0.0001
Serum urea nitrogen (5 mg/dl)b1.15 (1.07 to 1.24)0.00011.18 (1.10 to 1.27)<0.0001
ECG abnormal versus normalb0.70 (0.52 to 0.94)0.020.62 (0.46 to 0.84)0.002
LVH versus no LVHb0.71 (0.55 to 0.92)0.0090.71 (0.55 to 0.92)0.01
Heart disease history versus nob0.75 (0.59 to 0.97)0.030.76 (0.59 to 0.97)0.03
Phosphorus (0.3 mg/dl)b1.09 (1.02 to 1.16)0.011.07 (1.00 to 1.15)0.05
Triglycerides (50 mg/dl)c1.12 (1.06 to 1.18)<0.00011.06 (1.00 to 1.13)0.06
Glucose (10 mg/dl)c1.11 (1.02 to 1.20)0.011.07 (0.99 to 1.16)0.09
Urine urea nitrogen ≤7.8 (2 g/d)0.90 (0.77 to 1.06)0.200.90 (0.77 to 1.06)0.21
Urine urea nitrogen >7.8 (2 g/d)c1.13 (1.03 to 1.23)0.0081.08 (0.98 to 1.18)0.11
Body weight (5 kg)c1.03 (1.00 to 1.06)0.041.01 (0.98 to 1.04)0.46
Albumin (0.2 g/dl)c0.85 (0.79 to 0.92)<0.00010.97 (0.89 to 1.06)0.52
Urine sodium (1 g/d)c1.07 (1.00 to 1.13)0.041.01 (0.94 to 1.07)0.87
Hematocrit (2%)d0.96 (0.91 to 1.01)0.140.93 (0.88 to 0.98)0.01
Current versus never smokers1.20 (0.91 to 1.59)0.201.13 (0.85 to 1.50)0.40
Past versus never smokers0.94 (0.69 to 1.30)0.720.94 (0.68 to 1.29)0.70
Height (5 cm)1.05 (0.97 to 1.14)0.261.09 (1.00 to 1.18)0.05
Total minus HDL cholesterol (20 mg/dl)1.03 (0.97 to 1.09)0.350.95 (0.90 to 1.00)0.07
MAP (10 mmHg)1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)0.950.94 (0.87 to 1.01)0.08
SBP (10 mmHg)1.01 (0.96 to 1.06)0.640.96 (0.91 to 1.01)0.09
DBP (10 mmHg)0.99 (0.92 to 1.07)0.790.94 (0.86 to 1.02)0.11
Calcium × phosphorus (2 mg2/dl2)1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.151.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.15
Total cholesterol (20 mg/dl)1.04 (0.99 to 1.10)0.140.96 (0.91 to 1.01)0.15
Familial diagnosis of ESRD0.78 (0.54 to 1.14)0.200.76 (0.52 to 1.11)0.16
Urine sodium/potassium (0.5 unit)1.03 (0.98 to 1.09)0.181.03 (0.98 to 1.09)0.22
SBP-DBP (10 mmHg)1.04 (0.96 to 1.11)0.340.96 (0.89 to 1.03)0.27
HDL cholesterol (5 mg/dl)1.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.161.02 (0.98 to 1.06)0.41
Uric acid (1 mg/dl)1.02 (0.95 to 1.09)0.641.03 (0.96 to 1.10)0.44
Parental diagnosis of hypertension0.91 (0.69 to 1.18)0.470.92 (0.70 to 1.19)0.51
Urine creatinine/weight (0.003 g/d per kg)0.98 (0.91 to 1.05)0.510.98 (0.91 to 1.06)0.62
Years with hypertension (1 yr)1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.821.00 (0.98 to 1.01)0.63
Urine creatinine (0.3 g/d)1.05 (0.98 to 1.13)0.191.02 (0.94 to 1.09)0.68
Urine total volume (0.5 L)1.06 (1.00 to 1.13)0.060.99 (0.92 to 1.06)0.74
Income $0 to $14,999 versus mid-high0.97 (0.74 to 1.29)0.850.98 (0.74 to 1.29)0.88
Income decline versus mid-high1.00 (0.70 to 1.41)0.980.97 (0.68 to 1.37)0.84
No high school degree versus degree0.90 (0.69 to 1.19)0.460.98 (0.75 to 1.29)0.90
BMI (2 kg/m2)1.03 (1.00 to 1.07)0.081.00 (0.97 to 1.04)0.93
  • a For continuous variables, the HR indicate the proportional change in risk associated with each increase in the baseline factor by the amount indicated in parentheses. For categorical variables, the HR indicate the proportional change in risk for the presence of the indicated factor versus absence of the factor. Abnormal ECG findings were defined in response to the following question: Is the EKG completely normal, yes or no? LVH was defined by voltage criteria, V1 + V5 or V6 >35 mm, or V5 or V6 >25 mm.

  • b Baseline factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a GFR event or ESRD, both with and without adjustment for baseline proteinuria in addition to age, gender, and baseline GFR.

  • c Baseline factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a GFR event or ESRD, without but not with adjustment for baseline proteinuria in addition to age, gender, and baseline GFR.

  • d Baseline factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a GFR event or ESRD, with but not without adjustment for baseline proteinuria in addition to age, gender, and baseline GFR.