Table 2.

Disorders other than HIV-1 infection that are associated with CGa,b

DisordersbNo. of PatientsRaceReferences
Infection
    CMVc21 Afro-Caribbean, 1 African(37,38)
    HTLV-1c1Afro-Caribbean(13)
    HCVc3white(13)
    parvovirus B19c2416 African American, 3 Hispanic, 4 white, 2 other(3941)
    pulmonary tuberculosisc1Filipino(42)
    leishmaniasisc1African(33)
    febrile illness8African American(12,4446)
Autoimmune
    Adult Still’s diseasec21 Afro-Caribbean, 1 African(47,48)
    lupus-like syndromec5African American(13)
    systemic lupus erythematosusc32 African, 1 Jewish(4951)
    mixed connective tissue disorder1Hispanic(13)
    giant cell cerebral arteritisc1Afro-Caribbean(13)
Malignancy
    multiple myelomac31 Afro-Caribbean, 1 Indian, 1 white(13,52,53)
    acute monoblastic leukemia1Afro-Caribbean(13)
    hemophagocytic syndromec,d5African(54)
Genetic
    action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome2white(55)
    mitochondrial cytopathye1white(56)
    familial4Hispanic(57)
    sickle cell anemia1African American(58)
Drug exposure
    interferon-αc1African American(59)
    pamidronatec10white(6063)
Posttransplantation
    de novo142 African American, 2 Hispanic, 10 white(6466)
    recurrent51 African American, 1 white, 3 other(6669)
    arteriopathyc1white(70)
    acute vascular rejectionc1African American(70)
    thrombotic microangiopathy1white(70)
  • a CMV, cytomegalovirus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HTLV, human T cell lymphotrophic virus.

  • b C1q nephropathy, considered to be a unique variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, can display pathologic features of CG and is not listed here (132).

  • c Disorder involves T helper type 1 immune responses.

  • d Four cases occurred secondary to a malignancy (Hodgkin’s, T cell, or B cell lymphoma), but one case occurred secondary to leishmaniasis.

  • e Susceptibility mapped by forward genetics to a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA Tyr gene.