Table 2.

Univariate logistic regression models for risk factors of hip fracturea

VariableOR95% CI
Propensity score5.302.81 to 9.98
Kidney disease
    serum creatinine (per 1-mg/dl increase)1.261.01 to 1.59
    GFR (per 10-ml/min increase)0.870.78 to 0.96
    GFR <60 ml/min2.721.63 to 4.56
Demographics
    age (per 10-yr interval)1.921.64 to 2.24
    gender
        maleReference
        female1.591.05 to 2.42
    race/ethnicity
        non-Hispanic whiteReference
        non-Hispanic black0.500.24 to 1.03
        Hispanic0.890.50 to 1.61
        other0.330.14 to 0.76
Medical history
    diabetes (yes versus no)0.700.33 to 1.46
    history of osteoporosis (yes versus no)3.441.74 to 6.83
    postmenopausal status (yes versus no)1.970.48 to 8.12
    tobacco use (yes versus no)1.760.56 to 5.58
    history of hip fracture in mother (yes versus no)1.881.04 to 3.42
Medications and nutrition
    estrogen use (yes versus no)1.040.54 to 1.99
    diuretic use (yes versus no)1.250.76 to 2.05
    dietary calcium (mg)1.001.00 to 1.00
    dietary alcohol (g)1.000.99 to 1.01
    dietary vitamin A (IU)1.001.00 to 1.00
    serum vitamin A (μg/ml)1.080.72 to 1.64
    serum vitamin D (ng/ml)0.980.96 to 1.00
    serum calcium (mg/dl)1.140.87 to 1.49
    serum phosphorus (mg/dl)1.410.93 to 2.13
    serum alkaline phosphatase (U/L)1.001.00 to 1.01
Body measurements and activity
    weight (kg)0.970.95 to 0.98
    WHO BMD categories
        normalReference
        osteopenia1.130.43 to 3.00
        osteoporosis3.491.28 to 9.51
    activity level
        highReference
        medium1.280.78 to 2.08
        low2.121.21 to 3.68
  • a CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; WHO, World Health Organization.