Table 1.

Treatment modalities that target chronic hypoxia in the kidneya

Improvement of anemia by EPO
Preservation of peritubular capillary blood flow by blockade of the renin-angiotensin system
Protection of the vascular endothelium
    dextran sulfate
Antioxidants to improve the efficiency of cellular respiration
HIF-based therapy
    prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors
    gene transfer of constitutively active HIF
  • a EPO, erythropoietin; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor.