Table 1.

Types of systemic amyloidosis

DiseasePrecursor ProteinAmyloid ProteinOrgan Involvement
AL amyloidosisMonoclonal Ig light chainALKidney, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, nervous system, soft tissue, thyroid, adrenal gland
AH amyloidosisMonoclonal Ig heavy chainAHExtremely rare; kidney involvement predominates in the small number of reported cases
AA amyloidosisSerum amyloid A (SAA)AAKidney, liver, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, autonomic nervous system, thyroid
Transthyretin amyloidosis (hereditary)TransthyretinATTRPeripheral nervous system, heart, vitreous opacities; kidney involvement is not typical
Fibrinogen Aα amyloidosis (hereditary)Fibrinogen Aα chainAFibKidney, liver, spleen; hypertension is common; kidney involvement is predominantly glomerular
Apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis (hereditary)Apolipoprotein AIAApoAIKidney (with predominant medullary deposition), liver, heart, skin, larynx
Apolipoprotein AII amyloidosis (hereditary)Apolipoprotein AIIAApoAIIKidney
Lysozyme amyloidosis (hereditary)LysozymeALysKidney, liver, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, thyroid, salivary glands
Gelsolin amyloidosis (hereditary)GelsolinAGelCranial nerves, lattice corneal dystrophy
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (hereditary)Cystatin CACysCerebral vessels
Senile systemic amyloidosisTransthyretin (wild type)ATTRHeart, soft tissue
Dialysis-related amyloidosisβ2-MicroglobulinAβ2MOsteoarticular tissue; less common sites are gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, heart