Table 1.

Causes of inflammation in HDa

Patient related
    underlying disease
    comorbidity, peripheral vascular disease
    oxidative stress
    Ca × P metabolism (calcification, fetuin-A)
    infection (apparent and non-apparent)
        Helicobacter pylori
        Chlamydia pneumoniae
        periodontitis
        tuberculosis and others
        vascular access
    immunologic
        genetic
        nonfunctioning kidney transplants
    encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis
    anemia (hepcidin)
    heart failure
    obesity
    tumors
    physical exercise: sedentary lifestyle
Dialysis technique related
    retention of inflammatory mediators
    oxidative imbalance
    acetate
    pyrogenic substances of the dialysate
    complement activation; membranes and other bioincompatible material
  • a HD, hemodialysis.