Table 2.

Bacterium-derived pyrogens and their detection

Bacterium Cell WallMolecular Weight (Da)Limulus TestMononuclear Cell Test
Components
    LPS        >100,000++
    lipid A        2000 to 4000++
    other LPS fragments        <8000+/−+
    peptidoglycans        1000 to 20,000+
    muramilpeptides        400 to 1000+
    others+
Other cellular components
    bacteria DNA        Variable+
Secreted toxins
    exotoxin A        71,000+
    exotoxin A fragment        <1000+
    other exotoxins        20,000 to 50,000+