Table 1.

Possible mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and involvement in the process of diabetic nephropathya

Cell TypeAdhesion Molecules, ChemokinesProductsProposed RoleReferences
Monocytes, macrophagesICAM-1, MCP-1Nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, IL-1, TNF-α, complement factors, metalloproteinases, PDGF, TGF-βEndothelial damage, induction of fibroblast and mesangial cell proliferation(90,91,96,97,128130,132134)
T lymphocytesLFA-1/ICAM-1, RANTESIFN-γ, TNF-αActivation of endothelial cells and macrophages(91,110)
NeutrophilsMac-1Superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxideEndothelial damage(40,137)
  • a ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell exposed and secreted.