Table 1.

Risk factors of AMI after being placed on the waiting lista

VariableRecipients of Living-Donor Transplants Included (n = 53,297)Censoring Recipients at Living-Donor Transplant (n = 49,417)
% of TotalRR (95% CI) P Value% of TotalRR (95% CI) P Value
Transplantation status
    on the deceased donor waiting list93a1.00 (Reference)1001.00 (Reference)
    deceased-donor transplant ≤3 mo36a3.57 (3.21 to 3.96) P < 0.0001393.47 (3.13 to 3.85) P < 0.0001
    deceased-donor transplant >3 mo31a0.45 (0.41 to 0.50) P < 0.0001340.45 (0.40 to 0.50) P < 0.0001
    living-donor transplant ≤3 mo14a2.81 (2.31 to 3.42) P < 0.0001
    living-donor transplant >3 mo13a0.39 (0.33 to 0.47) P < 0.0001
Listed in 1999 to 2002 (versus 1995 to 1998)b541.09 (1.01 to 1.19) P = 0.0333541.11 (1.02 to 1.20) P = 0.0209
Age at listingb
    18 to 34 yr191.00 (Reference)181.00 (Reference)
    35 to 49 yr322.25 (1.92 to 2.64) P < 0.0001322.22 (1.88 to 2.62) P < 0.0001
    50 to 64 yr353.63 (3.11 to 4.24) P < 0.0001363.58 (3.04 to 4.20) P < 0.0001
    ≥65 yr144.30 (3.62 to 5.11) P < 0.0001144.08 (3.40 to 4.89) P < 0.0001
Race
    white581.00 (Reference)561.00 (Reference)
    black350.64 (0.59 to 0.69) P < 0.0001370.63 (0.58 to 0.68) P < 0.0001
    Asian50.83 (0.70 to 0.98) P = 0.028350.83 (0.70 to 1.00) P = 0.0371
    other/unknown30.62 (0.49 to 0.78) P < 0.000130.60 (0.47 to 0.76) P < 0.0001
Hispanic ethnicity (versus non-Hispanic)160.66 (0.59 to 0.73) P < 0.0001160.66 (0.59 to 0.73) P < 0.0001
Male (versus female)591.09 (1.02 to 1.17) P = 0.0160601.08 (1.01 to 1.17) P = 0.0339
Body mass index at listingb
    <18.5 kg/m240.95 (0.79 to 1.15) P = 0.601440.95 (0.78 to 1.15) P = 0.5748
    18.5 to 29.9 kg/m2471.00 (Reference)471.00 (Reference)
    ≤30 kg/m2180.95 (0.86 to 1.05) P = 0.2723190.93 (0.84 to 1.04) P = 0.1913
    Unknown301.05 (0.95 to 1.16) P = 0.3535301.03 (0.93 to 1.15) P = 0.5524
Primary cause of kidney disease
    glomerulonephritis251.00 (Reference)251.00 (Reference)
    diabetes321.53 (1.38 to 1.71) P < 0.0001331.53 (1.37 to 1.70) P < 0.0001
    hypertension190.75 (0.66 to 0.85) P < 0.0001190.75 (0.66 to 0.85) P < 0.0001
    cystic kidney disease50.69 (0.56 to 0.84) P = 0.000250.66 (0.54 to 0.82) P < 0.0001
    other/unknown190.74 (0.66 to 0.84) P < 0.0001180.75 (0.66 to 0.85) P < 0.0001
Comorbidity at or before listingb
    diabetes (versus no diabetes)c271.08 (0.97 to 1.20) P = 0.1801281.08 (0.97 to 1.21) P = 0.1620
    congestive heart failure (versus none)111.19 (1.08 to 1.32) P = 0.0008121.19 (1.07 to 1.32) P = 0.0011
    hypertension (versus none)580.91 (0.83 to 0.99) P = 0.0344580.90 (0.82 to 0.99) P = 0.0265
    ischemic heart disease (versus none)d81.68 (1.51 to 1.87) P < 0.000181.68 (1.51 to 1.87) P < 0.0001
    peripheral vascular disease (versus none)41.12 (0.98 to 1.29) P = 0.103241.08 (0.93 to 1.25) P = 0.3093
    cerebral vascular disease (versus none)31.20 (1.00 to 1.43) P = 0.044931.15 (0.95 to 1.38) P = 0.1490
Employment status at listingb
    not employed601.00 (Reference)611.00 (Reference)
    employed310.84 (0.76 to 0.92) P = 0.0003310.84 (0.76 to 0.92) P = 0.0003
    retired91.01 (0.89 to 1.14) P = 0.939491.03 (0.90 to 1.17) P = 0.1744
Duration of previous ESRD
    <1 mo21.06 (0.81 to 1.38) P = 0.687621.12 (0.82 to 1.53) P = 0.4907
    1 to 12 mo391.00 (Reference)391.00 (Reference)
    ≥12 mo581.23 (1.14 to 1.33) P < 0.0001591.22 (1.13 to 1.32) P < 0.0001
  • a Transplant status was considered a time-dependent state. Percentages are those of the original population that contributed time to the particular state. Each variable in this table is adjusted for each other variable. AMI, acute myocardial infarction; CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk.

  • b Time of placement on the deceased-donor waiting list or time of transplantation if this occurred before placement on the waiting list.

  • c Diabetes independent of diabetes that caused ESRD.

  • d Includes history of AMI.