Table 1.

Characteristics of included studiesa

First Author/Study Name, Year of PublicationDesign; Data; Country(ies)Inclusion CriteriaNo. of PatientsMedian Duration (Yr)Mean Age (Yr)% Male% PopulationDefinition of Reduced Kidney Functionb
CVDHTNDiabetes
ALLHAT 2005 (47)RCT; ALLHAT; US, Canada, Puerto Rico, US Virgin IslandsAge ≥55 yr, HTN, ≥1 other CV risk factor31,8974.9c67542610036GFR <60 ml/min
ARIC 2003 (42)P-CS; ARIC; USGeneral population, age 45 to 64 yr15,3506.2c54 (all 45 to 64)4553512GFR <60 ml/min
BRHS 1997 (54)P-CS; British Regional Heart Study; UKGeneral population; men aged 40 to 59 yr769014.85010041SCr ≥116 μmol/L
Bruno 2003 (36)P-CS; Casale Monferrato; ItalyGeneral population, type 2 diabetes154010.0d684484100SCr >133 μmol/L
CARE 1996 (44)RCT; CARE; US, CanadaAge 21 to 75 yr, previous MI41595.059861004214GFR <60 ml/min
CHS 2003 (15)P-CS; CHS; USGeneral population, age ≥65 yr48934.573 (all ≥65)45204222GFR <60 ml/min
DIG 2004 (17)RCT; DIG; US, CanadaCHF or EF <35%68001.0c64771004528GFR ≤60 ml/min
Ezekowitz 2004 (38)R-CS; APPROACH and BC Cardiac Registry; CanadaCHF + CAD on coronary angiogram64271.0d69651003921CrCl <60 ml/min
FHS 1999 (4)P-CS; Framingham Heart Study; USGeneral population2837 M 3386 W11.0c M 11.6c W53 M55 W100 M0 W14 M10 W30 M25 W30 M25 WSCr ≥136 μmol/L MSCr ≥120 μmol/L W
Friedman 1991 (39)P-CS; Waikato Hospital; New ZealandAge ≥60 yr with acute stroke4921.5c75 (all >60)51100SCr ≥120 μmol/L
Go 2004 (2)R-CS; Kaiser Permanente Renal Registry; USGeneral population, age ≥20 yr (treated at a single HMO)1,118,9222.8524561910GFR <60 ml/min
HDFP 1989 (50)RCT; HDFP; USAge 30–69 yr, HTN10,7688.0d51 (all 30 to 69)5410010SCr ≥151 μmol/L
HERS 2001 (18)RCT; HERS; USPostmenopausal women, age ≥55 yr27614.1c67 (all <80)01005923CrCl ≤60 ml/min
HOORN 2002 (20)P-CS; HOORN; The NetherlandsGeneral population, age 50 to 75 yr6088.76448245527GFR ≤63 ml/min
HOPE 2001 (43)RCT; HOPE; USAge ≥55 yr; known CVD or diabetes, ≥1 other CV risk factor92874.566731004738CrCl ≤65 ml/min
HOT 2001 (3)RCT; HOT; 26 countriesAge 50 to 80 yr, HTN18,5973.8c61531008CrCl ≤60 ml/min
Hoy 2001 (14)P-CS; Renal Disease Screening Program; AustraliaGeneral population, age ≥20 yr (predominantly Aboriginal)7865.7c34521710GFR <60 ml/min
HPS 2003 (56)RCT; Heart Protection Study; UKAge 40 to 80 yr; diabetes, HTN, or known CVD20,5364.6c6475854129SCr ≥130 μmol/L MSCr ≥110 μmol/L W
Laville 1994 (40)R-CS; Yalgado Ouedraogo National Hospital; Burkina FasoAdults, HTN3172.0d49621005SCr >150 μmol/L
LIPID 1998 (48)RCT; LIPID; Australia, New ZealandAge 31 to 75 yr, known CAD89876.1c6283100419GFR <60 ml/min
Madsen 1994 (41)P-CS; Hvidovre Hospital; DenmarkAge <76 yr, CHF1902.0d64 (all <76)7210011SCr >121 μmol/L
McAlister 2004 (22)P-CS; University of Alberta Heart Function Clinic; CanadaAdults, CHF7542.567661003223CrCl <60 ml/min
McClellan 2002 (23)R-CS; Medicare Medical Information System; USAdult Medicare beneficiaries, CHF6651.0d76401006644SCr >133 μmol/L MSCr >124 μmol/L W
Moreno 2003 (35)R-CS; SpainAdult, liver transplant recipients3975.6cSCr >115 μmol/L
Muntwyler 2002 (45)P-CS; Eur. Improvement of HF Survey; SwitzerlandAdults, CHF4111.4c75561002018SCr >120 μmol/L
NHANES I 2002 (5)P-CS; NHANES I; USGeneral population, age 25 to 74 yr235216.1c47434SCr ≥122 μmol/L MSCr ≥104 μmol/L W
NHANES II 2002 (16)P-CS; NHANES II; USGeneral population, age 30 to 74 yr645314.05055165GFR <70 ml/min
NHCP 2005 (24)R-CS; National Heart Care Project; USAdults, CHF53,6401.0d79421006440SCr >133 μmol/L
POSCH 1993 (21)RCT; POSCH; USAge 30 to 64 yr, previous MI and dyslipidemia4167.0d519210000SCr ≥115 μmol/L
PRIME II 2000 (13)RCT; PRIME II; The NetherlandsAge 18 to 80 yr, CHF19060.86580100621GFR ≤59 ml/min
Pulignano 2002 (55)R-CS; IN-CHF Registry; ItalyAdults, CHF1162 <70 523 ≥701.0d58 <70 75 ≥7079 <70 65 ≥701009 <70 9 ≥70SCr ≥221 μmol/L
Schillaci 2001 (49)P-CS; Progetto Ipertensione Umbria Monitoraggio Ambulatoriale; ItalyAdults, HTN18294.0c515401007SCr ≥103 μmol/L MSCr ≥84 μmol/L W
SHEP 1998 (46)RCT; SHEP; ItalyAdults, systolic HTN43365.0d724310010SCr ≥119 μmol/L
Sihvonen 2004 (51)P-CS; Tampere; FinlandAdults, RA and contemporaneous controls604 RA 457 Ctr11.0d59 RA 58 Ctr22 RA 23 CtrSCr ≥115 μmol/L MSCr ≥110 μmol/L W
SOLVD 2000 (37)RCT; SOLVD; USAdults, CHF, EF <353673 P2161 T59 P 61 T89 P 81 T10037 P 40 T15 P 25 TCrCl <60 ml/min
Syst-China 2001 (25)RCT; Syst-China; ChinaAge ≥60 yr, HTN23943.06764101004SCr ≥133 μmol/L
Syst-EUR 2002 (19)RCT; Syst-EUR; The NetherlandsAge ≥60 yr, HTN46882.070 (all ≥60)333010010SCr ≥101 μmol/L
VA-HIT 2004 (52)RCT; VA-HIT; USMen <74 yr, previous MI, dyslipidemia2505641001005730CrCl ≤75 ml/min
WOSCOPS 1995 (53)P-RC; WOSCOPS; UKMen 45 to 64 yr, dyslipidemia, multiple CV risk factors65914.9c55100100161GFR <60 ml/min
  • a CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, chronic heart failure; CrCl, creatinine clearance; Ctr, control; CV, cardiovascular; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EF, ejection fraction; HMO, health maintenance organization; HTN, hypertension; M, men; MI, myocardial infarction; P, prevention; P-CS, prospective cohort study; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; R-CS, retrospective cohort study; RCT, randomized controlled trial; SCr, serum creatinine; T, treatment; W, women.

  • b Definition chosen by review authors.

  • c Mean duration of follow-up (rather than median).

  • d Fixed duration of follow-up.