Table 2.

Changes in body composition, muscle size, and muscle strength from baseline to 12 wka

VariablePlaceboNDEXND+EXPb
NDEX
Body composition
    weight, kg
        baseline76.9 ± 19.264.0 ± 12.976.5 ± 21.573.2 ± 23.1
        3 mo76.9 ± 19.866.5 ± 13.578.0 ± 21.375.1 ± 23.0
        change0 ± 2.12.5 ± 3.51.6 ± 2.01.8 ± 2.90.040.51
    LBM (kg)
        baseline48.4 ± 8.245.7 ± 9.347.5 ± 12.347.2 ± 14.4
        3 mo48.2 ± 8.849.0 ± 9.047.1 ± 11.250.1 ± 15.1
        change−0.1 ± 1.63.3 ± 2.0−0.3 ± 3.03.0 ± 2.4<0.00010.66
    fat (kg)
        baseline21.3 ± 11.916.4 ± 13.622.4 ± 11.319.2 ± 8.3
        3 mo21.4 ± 12.115.8 ± 14.124.5 ± 11.118.6 ± 7.9
        change0.2 ± 1.6−0.7 ± 1.82.2 ± 2.9−0.6 ± 1.10.00090.05
Muscle size
    quadriceps muscle area (cm2)
        baseline51.1 ± 10.946.6 ± 15.747.9 ± 13.939.5 ± 9.3
        3 mo47.6 ± 11.050.9 ± 16.949.1 ± 13.546.2 ± 12.7
        change−3.5 ± 4.24.2 ± 4.31.2 ± 4.06.7 ± 5.3<0.00010.02
    serum creatinine (mg/dl)
        baseline10.8 ± 3.610.1 ± 2.49.4 ± 2.59.1 ± 2.3
        3 mo11.1 ± 4.012.3 ± 2.910.6 ± 2.311.3 ± 2.5
        change0.3 ± 1.52.2 ± 1.61.3 ± 2.32.2 ± 1.30.0030.41
Muscle strength
    knee extension 3RM (lb)
        baseline19.2 ± 8.713.0 ± 7.114.0 ± 8.416.7 ± 8.7
        3 mo20.0 ± 9.114.4 ± 7.322.6 ± 11.624.9 ± 8.4
        change0.8 ± 2.01.4 ± 2.18.6 ± 6.98.2 ± 6.20.99<0.0001
    hip abduction 3RM (lb)
        baseline11.8 ± 4.39.1 ± 6.08.5 ± 5.210.3 ± 4.6
        3 mo11.8 ± 5.99.2 ± 6.315.4 ± 6.918.1 ± 6.0
        change−0.1 ± 2.50.1 ± 2.26.9 ± 5.07.8 ± 4.60.66<0.0001
    hip flexion 3RM (lb)
        baseline10.9 ± 4.56.4 ± 6.17.6 ± 5.39.7 ± 4.7
        3 mo11.4 ± 6.37.4 ± 6.613.7 ± 6.816.9 ± 8.3
        change0.5 ± 2.71.0 ± 2.56.1 ± 4.37.2 ± 5.50.41<0.0001
    isokinetic knee extension at 90 degrees/s (Nm)
        baseline41.7 ± 19.430.7 ± 22.439.2 ± 25.143.6 ± 26.9
        3 mo43.3 ± 22.841.3 ± 26.346.8 ± 28.949.9 ± 27.8
        change1.6 ± 9.310.6 ± 23.97.6 ± 12.36.3 ± 11.00.360.77
    isokinetic knee extension at 120 degrees/s (Nm)
        baseline38.4 ± 22.533.3 ± 27.535.1 ± 23.935.5 ± 23.2
        3 mo40.2 ± 21.139.5 ± 30.643.9 ± 26.145.6 ± 26.2
        change1.8 ± 10.26.2 ± 14.18.8 ± 12.410.2 ± 9.70.380.08
  • a 3RM, three-repetition maximum; LBM, lean body mass.

  • b Analysis was by repeated-measures ANOVA. P values are for each intervention (i.e., the interaction between time and the intervention) and include data from all groups. P values for interactions between the interventions (three-way interactions) are not reported but are >0.10 in all cases.