Table 1.

Maternal characteristicsa

CharacteristicTotal GroupNon-IUGR GroupIUGR Group
BlackWhiteBlackWhiteBlackWhite
n14,17115,53912,87814,7241293815
Age (yr)24.0 ± 5.925.0 ± 6.3b24.0 ± 6.325.0 ± 5.9b23.4 ± 6.624.7 ± 5.9b
Prepregnancy BMI23.3 ± 4.722.4 ± 3.9b23.5 ± 4.722.5 ± 3.9b22.1 ± 4.421.5 ± 3.7b
Education (yr)10.3 ± 2.111.4 ± 2.5b10.3 ± 2.111.4 ± 2.5b10.1 ± 2.210.8 ± 2.4b
Smoking40.5%52.3%b39.2%51.0%b54.1%76.1%b
Anemia22.9%6.5%b23.0%6.6%b22.6%5.3%b
Type 2 diabetes > 5 yr0.1%0.7%b0.1%0.7%b1.2%0.6%b
Gestational diabetes1.1%1.0%1.0%0.9%0.7%0.5%
Poverty72.0%39.0%b72%38.7%b74.7%45.0%b
Hypertension < 24 wk1.0%0.8%0.9%0.8%2.1%1.3%
Hypertension > 24 wk2.7%2.4%2.4%2.3%5.4%4.2%
  • a BMI, body mass index; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction.

  • b P < 0.001 by t test or χ2.