Table 1.

Baseline demographics and study outcomes stratified by kidney disease statusa

CharacteristicCKD(n = 1549; 7.6%)Non-CKD(n = 18,809; 92.4%)
Demographics
    age (yr)70.2 ± 10.358.3 ± 9.7
    black race214 (13.8%)4589 (24.4%)
    female gender883 (57.0%)10,490 (55.8%)
    high school graduate1072 (69.4%)14,183 (75.6%)
    CHS cohort1137 (73.4%)4306 (22.9%)
Medical history
    diabetes278 (17.9%)2159 (11.5%)
    hypertension1139 (73.5%)8220 (43.7%)
    coronary disease226 (14.6%)968 (5.2%)
    hypertension medication947 (61.1%)6043 (32.1%)
    cigarette use214 (13.8%)4338 (23.1%)
    alcohol use732 (47.4%)10,379 (55.4%)
Physical findings
    SBP (mmHg)135.2 ± 23.7124.5 ± 20.3
    DBP (mmHg)71.5 ± 12.073.1 ± 11.4
    BMI (kg/m2)27.2 ± 4.627.3 ± 5.1
    LVH92 (6.2%)445 (2.4%)
Laboratory results
    serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.3 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.2
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)51.2 ± 8.492.2 ± 19.2
    serum albumin (g/dl)3.9 ± 0.33.9 ± 0.3
    non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)163.9 ± 44.1161.2 ± 42.9
    hemoglobin (g/dl)13.8 ± 1.613.9 ± 1.4
Outcomes
    all-cause stroke191 (12.3%)838 (4.5%)
    ischemic stroke163 (10.5%)712 (3.8%)
    hemorrhagic stroke22 (1.4%)107 (0.6%)
    follow-up time (mo)105.6 (59.6)111.1 (22.1)
    stroke rateb16.15.0
  • a Categorical variables are presented as n (%) and continuous variables as mean ± SD except follow-up time, which is median (interquartile range). Because of missing data, not all rows add to 20,358. All P values were statistically significant (P < 0.05) except female gender and BMI. BMI, body mass index; CHD, Cardiovascular Health Study; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DBP, diastolic BP; eGFR, estimated GFR; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; SBP, systolic BP.

  • b Stroke rate refers to incident strokes per 1000 person-years.