Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the two groups of HD patients with and without FIR treatment during the study perioda

CharacteristicControl GroupFIR GroupP
n7372
Age (yr)59.2 ± 15.061.9 ± 14.40.87
Gender (male)38 (52.1)37 (51.4)0.94
HD duration (mo)79.2 ± 42.285.2 ± 41.10.76
Prevalence of hypertension39 (53.4)40 (55.6)0.80
Prevalence of diabetes24 (32.9)25 (34.7)0.81
History of AVF malfunctionb34 (46.6)33 (45.8)0.81
No. of angioplasty (patients/procedures)20/4620/490.87
No. of surgical revision (patients/procedures)14/1913/200.56
Duration of AVF (mo)58.7 ± 33.856.8 ± 36.40.91
Creation of another AVF (n)c4 (5.5)1 (1.4)0.18
Renal transplantation (n)1 (1.4)2 (2.8)0.55
Peritoneal dialysis (n)2 (2.7)2 (2.8)0.99
Death with functioning AVF (n)2 (2.7)3 (4.2)0.64
Loss to follow-up (n)01 (1.4)0.31
  • a Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. AVF, arteriovenous fistula; FIR, far-infrared; HD, hemodialysis.

  • b Defined as the need for any interventional procedure (surgery or angioplasty) to correct a malfunctioning or occlusive fistula not resulting from the following stenosis-unrelated events, such as infectious complication, progressive aneurysmal formation, or steal syndrome.

  • b Creation of another AVF during this 1-yr study.