Table 3.

Comparison of the access flow and survival of AVF between HD patients with and without FIR therapy for 1 yra

ParameterControl GroupFIR GroupP
No. completing study6463
Qa1 (ml/min)992.8 ± 473.8975.2 ± 421.90.58
Qa2 (ml/min)975.9 ± 444.3948.6 ± 432.70.26
Δ(Qa2 − Qa1) (ml/min)−16.9 ± 130.3−26.6 ± 105.50.72
Qa1/CO10.206 ± 0.0880.204 ± 0.0780.90
Qa2/CO20.223 ± 0.0950.225 ± 0.1070.93
Δ[(Qa2/CO2) − (Qa1/CO1)]0.017 ± 0.0600.021 ± 0.0590.75
Qa3 (ml/min)941.1 ± 367.91011.6 ± 447.00.14
Qa4 (ml/min)928.4 ± 387.51047.8 ± 463.20.07
Qa3/CO30.194 ± 0.0710.213 ± 0.0770.16
Qa4/CO40.197 ± 0.0740.237 ± 0.0790.004
Δ(Qa4 − Qa3) (ml/min)−12.7 ± 153.636.2 ± 82.40.027
Δ[(Qa4/CO4) − (Qa3/CO3)]0.003 ± 0.0470.024 ± 0.0330.004
Δ(Qa3 − Qa1) (ml/min)−51.7 ± 283.136.3 ± 166.20.035
Δ[(Qa3/CO3) − (Qa1/CO1)]−0.012 ± 0.0640.009 ± 0.0400.031
Δ(Qa4 − Qa2) (ml/min)−47.5 ± 244.599.2 ± 144.4<0.001
Δ[(Qa4/CO4) − (Qa2/CO2)]−0.026 ± 0.0560.013 ± 0.060<0.001
Δ(Qa4 − Qa2) − Δ(Qa3 − Qa1) (ml/min)4.1 ± 184.562.9 ± 111.60.032
Δ[(Qa4/CO4) − (Qa2/CO2)] − Δ[(Qa3/CO3) − (Qa1/CO1)]−0.014 ± 0.0680.004 ± 0.0680.049
No. starting study7372
    patients with new AVF malfunction (%)22 (30.1%)9 (12.5%)<0.01
    patients with thrombosis of AVF6 (8.2%)2 (2.8%)0.15
Patients with intervention of AVF16 (21.9%)7 (9.7%)0.044
Total observations (patient-months)802.4812.6
New episodes of AVF malfunction during study3012
Episode of AVF malfunction/patient-months1/26.71/67.70.03
  • a Qa1, access flow measured within first hour after the initiation of the HD session immediately before the commencement of this study; Qa2, access flow measured 40 min after Qa1 measurement during the HD session immediately before the commencement of this study; Qa3, access flow measured before FIR treatment or within first hour after the initiation of the HD session when the study was completed; Qa4, access flow measured 40 min after Qa3 or immediately after FIR treatment during the HD session when the study was completed; Δ(Qa4 − Qa3), sum of the thermal effect by FIR and the hemodynamic effect by HD on the change of Qa; Δ(Qa3 − Qa1), nonthermal effect of 1 yr of FIR on the change of Qa; Δ(Qa4 − Qa2), sum of the thermal effect (for 40 min) and the nonthermal effect (for 1 yr) by FIR on Qa; [Δ(Qa4 − Qa2) − Δ(Qa3 − Qa1)], thermal effect of 40 min of FIR on the change of Qa.