Table 2.

Trend of changes in lipids, lipoproteins, and apoA-IV in various stages of CKDa

ParameterCKD 1 to 5Nephrotic SyndromeHemodialysisPeritoneal Dialysis
Total cholesterol↑↑↔↓
LDL cholesterol↑↑↔↓
HDL cholesterol
Non–HDL cholesterol↑↑↔↓
TG↑↑
Lp(a)↑↑↑↑
ApoA-I
ApoA-IV↑↘
ApoB↑↑↔↓
  • a These trends are derived from the composite of the literature. Non–HDL cholesterol includes cholesterol in LDL, VLDL, IDL, and chylomicron and its remnant. Explanation of arrows: Normal (↔), increased (↑), markedly increased (⇈), and decreased (↓) plasma levels compared with nonuremic indviduals; increasing (↗) and decreasing (↘) plasma levels with decreasing GFR.