Table 4.

Association between ACE genetic polymorphisms and DN: Haplotype analysis of ACE in each study population

PolymorphismPopulationHaplotype FrequencyHaplotypic OR (95% CI)
C/TaC/TbD/IG/CcA/GdControlsCases
TCICADenmark0.4110.382Reference
Finland0.3770.351Reference
France0.3860.300Reference
CCDGGDenmark0.0470.0561.22 (0.72 to 2.08)
Finland0.0810.0731.00 (0.64 to 1.55)
France0.0590.0661.30 (0.75 to 2.26)
CTDGGDenmark0.3640.3470.96 (0.74 to 1.24)
Finland0.3470.3761.20 (0.93 to 1.56)
France0.3170.3891.44 (1.08 to 1.93)
TTDGGDenmark0.0920.1061.16 (0.78 to 1.74)
Finland0.0940.1131.31 (0.89 to 1.91)
France0.1160.1141.16 (0.75 to 1.81)
Likelihood ratio test with 3 dfDenmarkχ2 = 1.38, P = 0.71
Finlandχ2 = 3.30, P = 0.35
Franceχ2 = 8.26, P = 0.04