Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study population, divided by level of renal functiona

CharacteristicNormal Renal Function(n = 603)Mildly Reduced Renal Function(n = 812)Moderately Reduced Renal Function(n = 423)Severely Reduced Renal Function(n = 56)Kidney Failure(n = 46)P
Age (yr; mean ± SD)60 ± 1265 ± 1068 ± 966 ± 1058 ± 13<0.001
Male gender (%)77.170.268.162.558.70.001
Current stable or unstable AP (%)19.417.219.430.423.90.13
Previous myocardial infarction (%)21.727.733.146.439.1<0.001
Previous CABG (%)9.515.012.816.14.30.01
CAD (summary variable; %)33.338.444.760.745.7<0.001
History of heart failure (%)3.55.99.725.010.9<0.001
Diabetes (%)11.911.513.519.628.30.007
Hypertension (%)23.234.140.746.445.7<0.001
Cigarette smoking (%)24.925.523.219.621.70.78
COPD (%)15.114.011.33.66.50.042
Electrocardiography (%)
    Q waves22.626.824.135.737.00.051
    left ventricular hypertrophy5.64.810.56.76.70.077
    left bundle branch block2.52.74.37.12.20.18
    right bundle branch block0.51.22.11.800.17
Medication (%)
    aspirin23.721.822.516.16.50.07
    ACEI17.926.037.441.132.6<0.001
    β blocker21.626.222.923.243.50.008
    calcium channel blocker19.422.529.628.641.3<0.001
    digoxin4.13.75.710.74.30.10
    diuretic6.812.422.241.14.3<0.001
    nitrate14.316.121.542.932.6<0.001
    statin27.529.627.430.426.10.88
ABI (mean ± SD)61 ± 1759 ± 1758 ± 1954 ± 1347 ± 22<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean ± SD)112 ± 2076 ± 848 ± 823 ± 47 ± 3<0.001
  • a ABI, ankle-brachial index; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; AP, angina pectoris; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated GFR.