Table 3.

Association between medication and renal and cardiovascular outcome in patients who presented with different levels of renal functiona

ParameterProgression to ESRDAll-Cause MortalityCardiac Events
Statins (all patients)0.41 (0.28 to 0.63)0.66 (0.55 to 0.82)0.71 (0.56 to 0.91)
    normal renal function (eGFR ≥90)0.35 (0.15 to 0.81)0.66 (0.48 to 0.91)0.46 (0.28 to 0.81)
    mildly reduced renal function (eGFR 60 to 89)0.39 (0.16 to 0.94)0.76 (0.61 to 0.96)0.74 (0.60 to 0.93)
    moderately reduced renal function (eGFR 30 to 59)0.47 (0.25 to 0.89)0.60 (0.45 to 0.79)0.57 (0.34 to 0.97)
    severely reduced renal function (eGFR 15 to 30)0.22 (0.08 to 0.59)0.42 (0.21 to 0.84)0.25 (0.08 to 0.76)
    kidney failure ( eGFR <15)0.13 (0.03 to 0.54)0.03 (0.01 to 0.70)0.02 (0.01 to 1.94)
    P value for interaction0.90.070.3
ACEI (all patients)0.74 (0.54 to 0.98)0.84 (0.78 to 0.95)0.81 (0.68 to 0.96)
    normal renal function (eGFR ≥90)0.96 (0.72 to 1.32)1.02 (0.81 to 1.28)0.80 (0.55 to 1.15)
    mildly reduced renal function (eGFR 60 to 89)1.18 (0.58 to 2.41)0.95 (0.68 to 1.36)0.94 (0.62 to 1.40)
    moderately reduced renal function (eGFR 30 to 59)0.67 (0.47 to 0.98)0.80 (0.62 to 0.98)0.76 (0.51 to 0.96)
    severely reduced renal function (eGFR 15 to 30)0.20 (0.06 to 0.67)0.64 (0.39 to 0.95)0.62 (0.34 to 0.97)
    kidney failure (eGFR <15)0.27 (0.12 to 0.63)0.44 (0.18 to 0.94)0.14 (0.01 to 0.91)
    P value for interaction0.020.040.03
  • a Adjusted for age; gender; clinical risk factors; BP; LDL cholesterol; glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with diabetes; baseline eGFR; propensity scores for statin and ACEI; and medication including β blockers, calcium channel blockers, aspirin, and diuretics. eGFR values are measured in ml/min per 1.73 m2.