Table 4.

Incidence rates and HR of all-cause ESRD according to quintiles of SBP, DBP, and pulse pressure in 158,365 CHEFS participants, China 1991 to 2000

BP Quintile (Range)Person-YearsNo. with ESRDAge-Standardized Rate per 100,000 Person-YearsaAge- and Gender-Adjusted HR (95% CI)bPMultivariate Adjusted HR (95% CI)cP
SBP (mmHg)
    1 (<108.5)259,3853817.61.01.0
    2 (108.5 to 118.5)251,5204216.51.08 (0.69 to 1.67)0.7391.07 (0.69 to 1.66)0.758
    3 (118.5 to 128.5)255,3625620.41.25 (0.83 to 1.90)0.2851.22 (0.80 to 1.85)0.357
    4 (128.5 to 141)235,0209332.61.91 (1.30 to 2.81)0.0011.82 (1.23 to 2.69)0.003
    5 (≥141)235,08715164.02.73 (1.88 to 3.95)<0.0012.32 (1.58 to 3.41)<0.001
    P for trend<0.001<0.001
DBP (mmHg)
    1 (<68)247,5006121.61.01.0
    2 (68 to 74)258,9174716.20.78 (0.53 to 1.14)0.2030.77 (0.53 to 1.13)0.181
    3 (74 to 80)236,0017326.81.27 (0.90 to 1.79)0.1751.22 (0.86 to 1.72)0.266
    4 (80 to 87)252,0307426.11.12 (0.79 to 1.58)0.5311.05 (0.74 to 1.50)0.780
    5 (≥87)241,89212545.51.81 (1.32 to 2.48)<0.0011.58 (1.13 to 2.20)0.007
    P for trend<0.0010.001
Pulse pressure (mmHg)
    1 (<37)261,5334317.61.01.0
    2 (37 to 42.5)251,3944720.91.07 (0.71 to 1.62)0.7561.05 (0.69 to 1.58)0.828
    3 (42.5 to 50)244,2325420.31.16 (0.78 to 1.74)0.4671.13 (0.76 to 1.69)0.548
    4 (50 to 60)242,1267730.01.43 (0.98 to 2.09)0.0671.38 (0.94 to 2.03)0.096
    5 (≥60)237,00715964.02.45 (1.71 to 3.52)<0.0012.05 (1.42 to 2.97)<0.001
    P for trend<0.001<0.001
  • a Rates were standardized according to the 2000 census data for China’s population.

  • b HR, with normal BP as the reference category, were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline age and gender and stratified by sampling clusters.

  • c HR, with normal BP as the reference category, were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline age, gender, geographic region (north versus south), urbanization (urban versus rural), education, BMI, physical activity, antihypertensive medication use, current cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and stratified by sampling clusters.