Table 5.

HR of all-cause ESRD associated with a 1-SD higher SBP, DBP, or pulse pressure in 158,365 CHEFS participants, China 1991 to 2000

BP Component (SD)Age- and Gender-Adjusted HR (95% CI)aPMultivariate Adjusted HR (95% CI)bP
Individual component
    SBP, 22.4 mmHg1.46 (1.34 to 1.59)<0.0011.38 (1.25 to 1.51)<0.001
    DBP, 12.1 mmHg1.35 (1.24 to 1.48)<0.0011.28 (1.16 to 1.41)<0.001
    pulse pressure, 16.1 mmHg1.36 (1.25 to 1.48)<0.0011.29 (1.18 to 1.41)<0.001
Two components simultaneously
    SBP and DBP
        SBP, 22.4 mmHg1.41 (1.24 to 1.60)<0.0011.35 (1.19 to 1.54)<0.001
        DBP, 12.1 mmHg1.05 (0.92 to 1.20)0.4561.03 (0.90 to 1.18)0.684
    SBP and pulse pressure
        SBP, 22.4 mmHg1.54 (1.30 to 1.83)<0.00011.42 (1.18 to 1.71)<0.001
        pulse pressure, 16.1 mmHg0.94 (0.79 to 1.11)0.4100.96 (0.80 to 1.15)0.684
    DBP and pulse pressure
        DBP, 12.1 mmHg1.26 (1.15 to 1.39)<0.00011.21 (1.09 to 1.34)<0.001
        pulse pressure, 16.1 mmHg1.28 (1.17 to 1.40)<0.00011.24 (1.13 to 1.36)<0.001
  • a HR, with normal BP as the reference category, were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline age and gender and stratified by sampling clusters.

  • b HR were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for baseline age, gender, geographic region (north versus south), urbanization (urban versus rural), education, BMI, physical activity, antihypertensive medication use, current cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and stratified by sampling clusters.