Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of the study population according to quartiles of UACRa

CharacteristicUACR (mg/mmol) (n = 794)P (Trend)
<0.4(n = 202)0.4 to 0.6(n = 195)0.6 to 1.1(n = 199)1.1 to 30(n = 198)
Age (yr)66 ± 668 ± 769 ± 770 ± 8<0.001
Gender (M/F)108/9482/11395/104109/890.52
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)98 ± 1493 ± 1391 ± 1397 ± 200.29
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73m2)58 ± 960 ± 1064 ± 1261 ± 110.04
Microalbuminuria (%)00060
UACR (mg/mmol)0.3 ± 0.10.5 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.24.5 ± 4.7<0.001
HbA1c (%)5.9 ± 0.66.1 ± 0.76.1 ± 0.86.2 ± 0.8<0.001
Type 2 diabetes (%)313942510.004
Impaired glucose metabolism (%)232223230.82
Normal glucose metabolism (%)463935260.01
BMI (kg/m2)27.9 ± 4.327.6 ± 3.827.4 ± 4.128.0 ± 4.40.72
Waist-to-hip ratio0.93 ± 0.110.92 ± 0.100.93 ± 0.090.95 ± 0.090.09
Brachial BP (mmHg)
    SBP137 ± 18141 ± 20145 ± 21150 ± 18<0.001
    DBP76 ± 976 ± 978 ± 1080 ± 9<0.001
    MAP96 ± 1098 ± 12100 ± 12103 ± 11<0.001
    PP61 ± 1465 ± 1567 ± 1670 ± 15<0.001
Hypertension (%)61667180<0.001
Antihypertensive medication (%)32334148<0.001
Total serum cholesterol (mmol/L)5.7 ± 1.05.9 ± 1.15.6 ± 1.15.6 ± 1.00.32
Serum LDL (mmol/L)3.6 ± 0.93.8 ± 1.03.5 ± 0.93.5 ± 0.80.02
Serum HDL (mmol/L)1.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.40.76
Serum triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6 ± 0.91.6 ± 0.71.5 ± 0.91.6 ± 1.00.60
Lipid-lowering medication (%)151219190.41
Previous CVD (%)42414960<0.001
Current smoking (%)111713170.58
  • a Data are total numbers, mean ± SD, or percentage. Microalbuminuria was defined as UACR between 2 and 30 mg/mmol.