Table 1.

Population characteristics compared by race and ethnicity (N= 15,837)a

VariableRacial/Ethnic GroupP Race/Ethnicity
AllWhiteBlackHispanicOther
All (% [SE], n)76.9 (1.2), 670010.4 (0.6), 42195.1 (0.4), 42927.6 (0.8), 626
GFR (mean [SE])93.8 (0.5)90.8 (0.6)104.7 (0.8)108.5 (0.8)99.8 (1.5)<0.0001
<60 (% [SE], n)5.8 (0.3), 13256.5 (0.4), 9224.1 (0.3), 2281.7 (0.2), 1369.4 (3.5), 39<0.0001
Serum creatinine (μmol/L; mean [SE])74.3 (0.3)74.4 (0.3)80.7 (0.8)66.8 (0.4)69.7 (0.8)<0.0001
Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g; mean [SE])b2.0 (<0.1)2.0 (<0.1)1.9 (<0.1)1.8 (0.1)1.8 (0.1)0.0073
≥30 (% [SE], n)10.1 (0.4), 21769.7 (0.5), 91013.4 (0.5), 6259.9 (0.6), 56510.1 (1.8), 76<0.0001
Age (yr; mean [SE])44.7 (0.5)46.0 (0.6)41.6 (0.4)37.6 (0.4)41.0 (1.0)<0.0001
Female gender (% [SE], n)52.1 (0.4), 842651.9 (0.5), 359255.8 (1.0), 233347.6 (0.7), 214352.3 (2.0), 358<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2; mean [SE])26.6 (0.1)26.4 (0.1)27.80 (0.1)27.4 (0.1)25.9 (0.3)<0.0001
Born outside United States (% [SE], n)13.6 (1.1), 33075.1 (0.6), 3487.0 (1.2), 26954.9 (3.1), 218381.3 (2.3), 507<0.0001
Self-reported diabetes (% [SE], n)5.4 (0.3), 13325.2 (0.3), 4897.6 (0.5), 3636.8 (0.4), 4414.2 (0.8), 390.0001
Self-reported hypertension (% [SE], n)23.7 (0.7), 438724.1 (0.9), 204429.1 (0.9), 133616.5 (1.0), 86916.7 (1.7), 138<0.0001
ACEI therapy (% [SE], n)3.8 (0.2), 7474.0 (0.3), 3944.3 (0.4), 2042.2 (0.3), 1312.5 (0.7), 18<0.0001
Diuretic therapy (% [SE], n)6.6 (0.4), 14167.0 (0.4), 8158.7 (0.4), 4212.3 (0.3), 1542.6 (0.6), 26<0.0001
Serum ferritin (μg/ml; mean [SE])128.9 (2.1)127.1 (2.5)149.1 (4.0)114.9 (1.9)128.7 (7.8)<0.0001
Red blood cell folate (nmol/L; mean [SE])452.6 (6.1)475.7 (7.3)338.1 (3.6)396.3 (8.8)413.9 (8.5)<0.0001
  • a ANOVA and χ2 analysis, respectively, were used for between-group comparisons of continuous and categorical variables. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; BMI, body mass index. GFR values are given as ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • b Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios showed non-Gaussian distribution characteristics and were logarithmically transformed. The exponents of 2.0, 1.9, and 1.8 are 7.4, 6.7, and 6.1, respectively.