Table 3.

Multivariate analysis of BP and laboratory variables with linear regressiona

VariableGFRRace/Ethnicity (versusWhite)P
<60 versus ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2PBlackHispanicOtherRace/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity × GFR
SBP (mmHg)
    all3.28 (0.81)0.00023.29 (0.33)1.93 (0.33)0.55 (0.82)<0.00010.0726
    GFR <606.78 (2.19)8.90 (3.31)3.35 (3.78)0.0044
    GFR ≥603.10 (0.35)1.76 (0.32)0.41 (0.78)<0.0001
DBP (mmHg)
    all−1.51 (0.50)0.00391.08 (0.29)−0.52 (0.35)1.04 (0.71)0.00040.0048
    GFR <604.48 (1.30)0.26 (1.64)5.68 (2.60)0.0008
    GFR ≥600.95 (0.31)−0.52 (0.34)0.89 (0.68)0.0024
Potassium (mmol/L)
    all0.16 (0.02)<0.0001−0.05 (0.01)−0.06 (0.02)−0.05 (0.03)0.00140.0687
    GFR <60−0.05 (0.06)−0.05 (0.05)0.04 (0.07)0.3600
    GFR ≥60−0.05 (0.01)−0.06 (0.02)−0.05 (0.03)0.0016
Hemoglobin (g/L)
    all−2.97 (0.60)<0.0001−9.30 (0.29)−1.30 (0.47)−2.28 (0.58)<0.00010.4991
    GFR <60−15.07 (1.31)−5.21 (2.10)2.17 (3.70)<0.0001
    GFR ≥60−9.01 (0.30)−1.24 (0.48)−2.43 (0.62)<0.0001
Bicarbonate (mmol/L)
    all−0.93 (0.17)<0.0001−0.20 (0.24)−0.35 (0.38)−0.05 (0.31)0.70870.0346
    GFR <60−0.42 (0.60)−1.10 (0.64)−0.57 (0.72)0.3835
    GFR ≥60−0.17 (0.23)−0.33 (0.38)−0.02 (0.31)0.7473
Calcium (mmol/L)
    all0.03 (0.01)<0.0001<0.01 (0.01)<0.01 (0.01)<0.01 (0.01)0.67160.3904
    GFR <60<0.01 (0.01)−0.04 (0.02)0.02 (0.03)0.2047
    GFR ≥60<0.01 (0.01)<0.01 (0.01)<0.01 (0.01)0.6576
Phosphorus (mmol/L)
    all0.04 (0.01)<0.00010.02 (<0.01)0.03 (0.01)0.02 (0.01)0.00090.6057
    GFR <600.04 (0.02)0.05 (0.02)−0.02 (0.04)0.0803
    GFR ≥600.01 (0.01)0.03 (0.01)0.02 (0.01)0.0007
Uric acid (mmol/L)
    all62.28 (3.51)<0.00011.52 (2.24)−4.78 (2.58)6.68 (4.94)0.01580.0040
    GFR <6031.21 (8.58)10.60 (12.12)24.43 (12.70)0.0042
    GFR ≥60−0.03 (2.22)−5.58 (2.64)5.55 (5.04)0.0164
  • a Data are β coefficients (SE). Linear regression modeling was used, with BP and laboratory variables as outcome variables. Race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, born outside United States, self-reported diabetes, self-reported hypertension, ACEI therapy, diuretic therapy, serum ferritin, and red blood cell folate were included as adjustment variables in all models. GFR category was also included in analyses of the overall population. GFR values are given as ml/min per 1.73 m2.