Table 5.

Adjusted OR of BP and laboratory variables ≤5th or ≥95th percentiles, compared by categories of GFR and race/ethnicitya

VariableGFRRace/Ethnicity (versus White)P
<60 versus≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2PBlackHispanicOtherRace/EthnicityRace/Ethnicity × GFR
SBP ≥156.0 mmHg
    all0.99 (0.76 to 1.30)0.95702.36 (1.87 to 2.99)1.69 (1.31 to 2.17)1.63 (0.97 to 2.74)<0.00010.0383
    GFR <601.79 (1.11 to 2.88)2.53 (1.19 to 5.37)2.21 (1.11 to 4.39)0.0087
    GFR ≥602.44 (1.92 to 3.09)1.64 (1.28 to 2.10)1.51 (0.84 to 2.69)<0.0001
DBP ≥90.7 mmHg
    all1.18 (0.80 to 1.72)0.39981.92 (1.48 to 2.48)1.18 (0.88 to 1.58)1.38 (0.88 to 1.72)0.00010.0088
    GFR <602.23 (1.25 to 3.97)1.29 (0.40 to 4.20)8.23 (3.23 to 21.00)0.0001
    GFR ≥601.89 (1.44 to 2.47)1.18 (0.87 to 1.60)1.21 (0.76 to 1.91)0.0003
Potassium ≥4.6 mmol/L
    all2.60 (1.87 to 3.61)<0.00010.93 (0.69 to 1.25)0.76 (0.48 to 1.22)0.70 (0.40 to 1.23)0.54210.0031
    GFR <600.74 (0.30 to 1.82)1.17 (0.52 to 2.65)1.81 (0.87 to 3.75)0.3259
    GFR ≥600.96 (0.71 to 1.29)0.74 (0.46 to 1.20)0.60 (0.31 to 1.15)0.4307
Hemoglobin ≤118.0 g/L
    all1.97 (1.31 to 2.98)0.00184.13 (2.78 to 6.14)1.71 (1.16 to 2.52)1.48 (0.85 to 2.58)<0.00010.7977
    GFR <605.06 (2.92 to 8.77)2.10 (0.93 to 4.74)0.77 (0.16 to 3.62)<0.0001
    GFR ≥604.07 (2.68 to 6.16)1.69 (1.12 to 2.57)1.54 (0.84 to 2.81)<0.0001
Bicarbonate ≤22.5 mmol/L
    all2.87 (1.93 to 4.18)<0.00011.29 (0.88 to 1.89)2.13 (1.13 to 3.99)0.88 (0.44 to 1.76)0.02890.7529
    GFR <601.25 (0.52 to 2.98)1.55 (0.66 to 3.64)0.74 (0.08 to 6.55)0.7338
    GFR ≥601.28 (0.87 to 1.89)2.21 (1.17 to 4.17)0.91 (0.40 to 2.07)0.0364
Calcium ≤2.1 mmol/L
    all0.63 (0.38 to 1.05)0.81890.99 (0.73 to 1.32)0.99 (0.64 to 1.54)1.27 (0.66 to 2.46)0.81890.3138
    GFR <602.22 (0.82 to 6.01)1.83 (0.39 to 8.65)0.54 (0.09 to 3.10)0.2166
    GFR ≥600.93 (0.69 to 1.26)0.98 (0.63 to 1.51)1.28 (0.65 to 2.52)0.6673
Phosphorus ≥1.4 mmol/L
    all1.95 (1.40 to 2.72)0.00011.49 (1.23 to 1.80)1.81 (1.45 to 2.26)1.44 (0.93 to 2.23)<0.00010.5387
    GFR <601.45 (0.72 to 2.92)1.30 (0.51 to 3.33)0.25 (0.04 to 1.64)0.2222
    GFR ≥601.50 (1.22 to 1.83)1.90 (1.54 to 2.36)1.62 (1.03 to 2.54)<0.0001
Uric acid ≥469.9 μmol/L
    all5.42 (3.97 to 7.40)<0.00011.41 (1.12 to 1.78)1.02 (0.73 to 1.42)1.72 (1.00 to 2.94)0.00870.0482
    GFR <602.94 (1.64 to 5.28)1.28 (0.57 to 2.89)3.84 (1.50 to 9.82)0.0002
    GFR ≥601.25 (0.96 to 1.64)0.96 (0.67 to 1.37)1.51 (0.79 to 2.90)0.2556
≥1 abnormality
    all2.17 (1.79 to 2.62)<0.00011.85 (1.64 to 2.08)1.44 (1.23 to 1.69)1.17 (0.94 to 1.47)<0.00010.5331
    GFR <602.01 (1.21 to 3.32)1.66 (0.98 to 2.79)0.65 (0.33 to 1.27)0.0296
    GFR ≥601.82 (1.62 to 2.04)1.44 (1.23 to 1.70)1.19 (0.94 to 1.51)<0.0001
  • a Data are OR (95% confidence intervals). GFR values are given as ml/min per 1.73 m2. Race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, born outside United States, self-reported diabetes, self-reported hypertension, ACEI therapy, diuretic therapy, serum ferritin, and red blood cell folate were included as adjustment variables in all models. GFR category was also included in analyses of the overall population.