Table 1.

Baseline characteristics according to quartile of ACRa

CharacteristicQuartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4P
NHS I
    ACR (mg/g; median [range])0.97 (0.00 to 1.69)2.22 (1.70 to 2.73)3.42 (2.74 to 4.33)6.46 (4.34 to 24.17)
    urine albumin (mg/L; median [IQR])0.66 (0.00 to 1.16)1.61 (1.14 to 2.21)2.09 (1.52 to 3.07)3.99 (2.60 to 7.12)<0.001
    urine creatinine (mg/dl; median [IQR])76.9 (52.9 to 112.4)73.9 (54.1 to 101.3)60.7 (42.7 to 92.3)55.8 (41.8 to 84.6)<0.001
    age (yr; median [IQR])64 (59 to 69)64 (60 to 70)65 (59 to 70)67 (61 to 72)0.008
    BMI (kg/m2; median [IQR])24.9 (22.3 to 28.2)24.6 (22.3 to 27.7)23.8 (21.6 to 26.9)23.6 (21.6 to 27.4)0.030
    physical activity (METS/wk; median [IQR])15.2 (8.4 to 29.4)17.8 (8.6 to 34.2)15.2 (6.2 to 28.9)13.2 (5.1 to 27.7)0.004
    SBP (mmHg; median [IQR])120 (120 to 130)120 (110 to 130)120 (110 to 130)120 (120 to 130)0.070
    DBP (mmHg; median [IQR])80 (70 to 80)80 (70 to 80)80 (70 to 80)80 (70 to 80)0.400
    MDRD eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; median [IQR])76 (65 to 85)77 (69 to 87)79 (69 to 90)80 (70 to 91)0.004
    serum creatinine (mg/dl; median [IQR])0.81 (0.73 to 0.92)0.80 (0.72 to 0.88)0.78 (0.70 to 0.88)0.77 (0.68 to 0.86)0.001
    alcohol intake (g/d; median [IQR])1.1 (0.0 to 9.7)2.4 (0.0 to 9.5)1.5 (0.0 to 7.2)1.5 (0.0 to 6.9)0.340
    sodium intake (g/d; median [IQR])1.9 (1.6 to 2.1)1.9 (1.7 to 2.1)1.8 (1.6 to 2.1)1.9 (1.6 to 2.1)0.650
    current smoking (%)7.35.98.06.50.970
    past smoking (%)43.143.447.245.20.460
    white race (%)85.888.687.688.30.510
    family history of hypertension (%)39.443.840.135.60.290
NHS II
    ACR (mg/g; median [range])1.06 (0.00 to 1.62)2.04 (1.63 to 2.43)2.93 (2.44 to 3.67)5.40 (3.68 to 23.84)
    urine albumin (mg/L; median [IQR])1.07 (0.24 to 1.91)2.60 (1.82 to 3.58)3.23 (2.24 to 4.79)6.48 (3.98 to 10.67)<0.001
    urine creatinine (mg/dl; median [IQR])124.9 (88.7 to 175.3)131.1 (96.8 to 176.4)111.4 (72.9 to 162.2)116.4 (75.2 to 162.9)<0.001
    age (yr; median [IQR])44 (41 to 47)44 (41 to 47)43 (41 to 46)44 (40 to 47)0.280
    BMI (kg/m2; median [IQR])25.0 (22.0 to 28.2)24.8 (22.0 to 28.3)24.3 (22.3 to 28.3)24.0 (21.6 to 28.1)0.260
    physical activity (METS/wk; median [IQR])12.5 (5.1 to 25.5)12.1 (5.0 to 25.2)14.2 (5.6 to 27.1)11.5 (5.0 to 22.5)0.620
    SBP (mmHg; median [IQR])120 (110 to 120)110 (110 to 120)120 (110 to 120)120 (110 to 120)0.570
    DBP (mmHg; median [IQR])70 (70 to 80)70 (70 to 80)70 (70 to 80)70 (70 to 80)0.730
    MDRD eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; median [IQR])86 (75 to 98)94 (82 to 100)96 (83 to 105)96 (84 to 113)<0.001
    serum creatinine (mg/dl; median [IQR])0.80 (0.70 to 0.88)0.72 (0.70 to 0.80)0.70 (0.66 to 0.80)0.70 (0.60 to 0.80)<0.001
    alcohol intake (g/d; median [IQR])1.5 (0.0 to 6.0)1.1 (0.0 to 3.85)1.0 (0.0 to 5.7)0.9 (0.0 to 4.7)0.370
    sodium intake (g/d; median [IQR])2.0 (1.7 to 2.2)2.0 (1.7 to 2.2)2.0 (1.7 to 2.2)2.0 (1.7 to 2.2)0.720
    current smoking (%)9.17.08.18.30.910
    past smoking (%)30.223.024.128.30.780
    white race (%)95.496.095.894.00.410
    family history of hypertension (%)55.048.050.256.20.610
  • a DBP, diastolic BP; METS, metabolic equivalent task score; SBP, systolic BP.