Table 1.

Histologic diagnosis in relation to clinical presentation at the first renal biopsy for 72 patients with C1q nephropathya

Demographic and Clinical FeaturesLight Microscopy FindingsPc
No Lesions (n = 10)No Lesions (with NS) (n = 17)FSGS (with NS) (n = 11)Proliferative GN (n = 20)Otherb (n = 14)
Age range (yr)11 to 602 to 334 to 359 to 667 to 58
Mean age (yr; mean ± SD)26.3 ± 15.016.2 ± 10.017.9 ± 10.427.9 ± 14.422.5 ± 14.50.0020
Children/adults4/68/96/54/166/80.0490
Male/female7/38/107/418/29/50.0090
Underlying infections (n [%])d2 (20.0)11 (64.7)3 (27.3)8 (40.0)3 (21.4)0.3060
Urinalysis normal (n [%])2 (20.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (14.3)0.1570
Hematuria (n [%])6 (60.0)10 (58.8)6 (54.5)19 (95.0)9 (64.3)0.0020
Non–nephrotic-range proteinuria (n [%])6 (60.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)14 (70.0)7 (50.0)0.0005
NS or nephrotic-range proteinuria (n [%])0 (0.0)17 (100.0)11 (100.0)5 (25.0)1 (7.1)0.0005
Renal insufficiency (n [%])2 (20.0)3 (17.6)5 (45.5)15 (75.0)8 (57.1)0.0560
Hypertension (n [%])2 (20.0)2 (11.8)4 (36.4)11 (55.0)6 (42.9)0.0760
  • a GN, glomerulonephritis; NS, nephrotic syndrome.

  • b Tubulointerstitial nephritis (n = 6), Hantavirus nephropathy (n = 1), benign hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n = 2), thin basement membrane nephropathy (n = 3), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (n = 1), and medullary cystic disease (n = 1).

  • c For statistical analysis, the groups “no lesions (with NS)” and “FSGS (with NS)” were merged, as were “no lesions” and “proliferative GN.” The group “other” was not considered for statistical analysis.

  • d Underlying infections: Pharyngitis or tonsillitis (n = 17), bronchopneumonia (n = 4), diarrhea (n = 2), erysipelas (n = 1), meningitis (n = 1), meningoencephalitis (n = 1), and encephalitis (n = 1).