Table 1.

Baseline characteristicsa

CharacteristicGFR
<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n = 597)≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n = 4557)
Pioglitazone (n = 274)Placebo (n = 323)Pioglitazone (n = 2292)Placebo (n = 2265)
Patient
    male (n [%])b163 (59.5)181 (56.0)1546 (67.5)1516 (66.9)
    white (n [%])272 (99.3)314 (97.2)2255 (98.4)2242 (99.0)
    age (yr; mean ± SD)b65.9 ± 6.065.2 ± 7.061.5 ± 7.661.1 ± 7.7
    time since diagnosis of diabetes     (yr; mean ± SD)b11.2 ± 7.511.6 ± 8.29.2 ± 6.89.3 ± 6.9
    BMI (kg/m2; mean ± SD)31.0 ± 4.831.2 ± 4.830.7 ± 4.731.0 ± 4.8
    BP: mean systolic/diastolic (mmHg)144.0/82.2145.8/82.4143.5/82.9143.0/17.4
    history of hypertension (n [%])b225 (82.1)275 (85.1)1692 (73.8)1695 (74.8)
    current smoker (n [%])b15 (5.8)32 (9.9)314 (13.7)341 (15.1)
Blood glucose–lowering treatment (n [%])
    metformin only24 (8.8)23 (7.1)226 (9.9)234 (10.3)
    sulfonylureas only46 (16.8)60 (18.6)456 (19.9)427 (18.9)
    metformin + sulfonylurea65 (23.7)80 (24.8)557 (25.2)571 (25.2)
    insulin + metformin53 (19.3)60 (18.6)398 (17.4)406 (17.9)
    insulin + sulfonylurea31 (11.3)42 (13.0)175 (7.6)175 (7.7)
Laboratory data (mean ± SD)
    HbA1c (%)8.2 ± 1.58.3 ± 1.58.0 ± 1.48.1 ± 1.4
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.0 ± 1.03.0 ± 1.13.0 ± 0.93.0 ± 1.0
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.1 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3
    triglycerides (mmol/L)2.3 ± 1.62.5 ± 1.82.2 ± 1.92.2 ± 1.8
    creatinine (μmol/L)b122.6 ± 25.8123.4 ± 38.877.4 ± 15.077.2 ± 14.8
    GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)b50.1 ± 7.750.3 ± 8.889.3 ± 20.389.4 ± 19.1
Micral test result
    negativeb120 (43.8)157 (48.6)1266 (55.2)1250 (55.2)
    20 mg/L48 (17.5)58 (18.0)487 (21.2)484 (21.4)
    50 mg/L54 (19.7)53 (16.4)298 (13.0)313 (13.8)
    100 mg/L45 (16.4)45 (13.9)185 (8.1)170 (7.5)
  • a BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin.

  • b P < 0.0001 for GFR <60 versus ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (using a χ2 test).