Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the patients according to the ACE insertion/deletion (ID) genotype

CharacteristicID GenotypeP
II (n = 370)ID (n = 674)DD (n = 399)
Age, yr60.3 (7.5)60.0 (7.3)60.2 (7.6)0.833
Sex, no. (%)
    female125 (23.7)251 (47.5)152 (28.8)0.411
    male245 (26.8)423 (46.2)247 (27.0)
    Race or ethnic group, no. (%)
    Asian99 (39.9)115 (46.4)34 (13.7)<0.001
    Black57 (26.5)79 (36.7)79 (36.7)
    Hispanic81 (30.6)122 (46.0)62 (23.4)
    White128 (18.4)349 (50.1)219 (31.5)
    Other5 (26.3)9 (47.4)5 (26.3)
Body mass indexa28.75 (5.78)29.78 (6.47)30.36 (6.39)0.002
Known duration of diabetes, yr
    ≥5 yr324 (25.0)614 (47.3)359 (27.7)0.238
    <5 yr45 (31.5)60 (42.0)38 (26.6)
    not available102
Blood pressure, mmHg
    systolic152.7 (20.0)152.3 (19.2)152.5 (19.2)0.946
    diastolic82.3 (10.9)82.3 (10.4)82.8 (10.0)0.738
Medical history, no. (%)
    use of antihypertensive drugs346 (27.6)626 (46.4)367 (26.0)0.629
    angina pectoris30 (22.1)66 (48.5)40 (29.4)0.590
    Myocardial infarction46 (24.9)76 (41.1)63 (34.1)0.105
    coronary revascularization procedure1 (50.0)1 (50.0)00.479
    stroke1 (100.0)000.256
    lipid disorder130 (24.9)247 (47.2)146 (27.9)0.876
    amputation32 (25.8)65 (52.4)27 (21.8)0.255
    neuropathy186 (25.8)348 (48.3)187 (25.9)0.317
    retinopathy248 (26.9)427 (46.3)248 (26.9)0.333
    current smoking67 (26.0)121 (46.9)70 (27.1)0.977
Laboratory variables
    urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, median mg/g (range)1364 (60–9328)1193 (34–12,208)1166 (31–10,634)0.626
    serum creatinine, mg/dlb1.85 (0.48)1.87 (0.48)1.85 (0.48)0.791
    glomerular filtration rate,c ml/min/1.73 m240.5 (12.5)39.2 (11.9)40.4 (12.9)0.159
Serum cholesterol, mg/dld
    total230.0 (56.8)225.8 (55.1)228.59 (54.3)0.464
    LDL145.4 (47.4)140.3 (44)141.1 (45.6)0.239
    HDL43.4 (15.0)45.5 (15.3)45.2 (14.6)0.099
Serum triglycerides, mg/dle222.9 (197.1)219.4 (207.3)216.81 (158.0)0.908
Hemoglobin, g/dlf12.5 (1.8)12.5 (1.8)12.6 (1.9)0.826
Glycosylated hemoglobin, %8.6 (1.7)8.5 (1.6)8.3 (1.6)0.054
Serum albumin, g/dl3.8 (0.4)3.8 (0.4)3.8 (0.4)0.227
  • Mean (SD) values are presented for all variables, except medical history, race or ethnic group, and sex (n, %) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (median (range)).

  • a Body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.

  • b To convert values to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4.

  • c Estimated using the modified equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study.

  • d To convert values to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.02586.

  • e To convert values to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.01129.

  • f To convert values to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.6206.