Table 4.

Renal outcomes and death by ACE/ID genotype in the placebo groupa

n/N (%)Risk Reductionb (95% CI)P
Composite endpoint of doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, or death
ID vs II151/317 (47.6) vs 85/200 (42.5)−17.5 (−35.9 to −1.6)0.029
DD vs II106/207 (51.2) vs 85/200 (42.5)−38.1 (−84.7 to −3.3)
ESRD or death
ID vs II132/317 (41.6) vs 67/200 (33.5)−16.4 (−36.3 to 0.7)0.060
DD vs II87/207 (42.0) vs 67/200 (33.5)−35.4 (−85.8 to 1.3)
Doubling of serum creatinine
ID vs II71/317 (22.4) vs 54/200 (27.0)−14.6 (−39.7 to 6.0)0.177
DD vs II60/207 (29.0) vs 54/200 (27.0)−31.4 (−95.1 to 11.6)
ESRD
ID vs II84/317 (26.5) vs 42/200 (21.0)−18.7 (−44.7 to 2.7)0.091
DD vs II56/207 (27.1) vs 42/200 (21.0)−40.8 (−109.4 to 5.3)
Death
ID vs II64/317 (20.2) vs 37/200 (18.5)−12.0 (−39.3 to 9.9)0.307
DD vs II49/207 (23.7) vs 37/200 (18.5)−25.5 (−94.0 to 18.8)
Doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD
ID vs II104/317 (32.8) vs 65/200 (32.5−17.5 (−94.5 to 1.9)0.064
DD vs II79/207 (38.2) vs 65/200 (32.5)−38.0 (−39.4 to 1.0)
  • CI, confidence interval; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; n/N, number of patients with an event/total number of patients pertaining to each approach.

  • a In endpoint trials, there is often a difference between the risk reduction as determined on the basis of the Cox regression model and the risk reduction as determined on the basis of the crude rates of events. The difference results in part from the fact that the Cox regression model accounts for the time at risk (i.e., the longer average follow-up in the losartan group than in the placebo group).

  • b A negative risk reduction thus denotes an increased risk.