Table 1.

Detection of cytokines and chemokines by Beadlyte 22-plex assay in urine from individuals with and without diabetes and recovery of a known quantity of each analyte added to the urine of the patients with diabetesa

Analyte (pg/ml)Detection LimitbDetection Frequency Diabetes (%)Recovery (%; Mean ± SD; n = 30)c
No (n = 30)Yes (n = 30)
Chemokines
    IL-8/CXCL80.1779382 ± 10
    MCP-1/CCL27.1709071 ± 24
    IP-10/CXCL104.65793109 ± 11
Proinflammatory cytokines
    IL-60.1475792 ± 7
    IL-1α1.3436060 ± 24
    IL-1β0.2403095 ± 8
    IFN-γ0.8331775 ± 25
    TNF-α0.5201771 ± 18
Other cytokines
    IL-20.3202095 ± 8
    IL-31.323395 ± 10
    IL-41.410092 ± 16
    IL-50.14010100 ± 5
    IL-72.4203393 ± 9
    IL-100.1533391 ± 8
    IL-12p700.9332094 ± 9
    IL-130.2303783 ± 12
    IL-150.1505389 ± 9
    GM-CSF1.0303094 ± 12
  • a Four markers (RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1α/CCL3, Eotaxin/CCL26, and IL-12p40) were omitted because of unsatisfactory standard curves, as described in the Concise Methods sections.

  • b The detection limit of an assay is defined by the manufacturer as 2 SD above the mean reading of 20 replicates of the zero standard. A marker is regarded as detected when duplicate measurements both are above the detection limit.

  • c Percentage recovery is the concentration estimated by the assay divided by the known concentration spiked in the urine (556 pg/ml).