Table 1.

Compounds with the potential to provoke vascular damagea

Middle moleculesb
    AGE
    Ang-A
    dinucleotide polyphosphates
        Ap5A
        Ap6A
    leptin
    TNF-α
Protein-bound moleculesb
    AGEc
    dinucleotide polyphosphates
        Ap5A
        Ap6A
    homocysteine
    indoxyl sulfate
    leptin
    pCS
    phenylacetic acid
    TNF-α
Small water-soluble compounds
    ADMAd
    guanidino acetic acidd
    methylguanidined
  • a ADMA, asymmetric dimethylarginine.

  • b Protein-bound molecules and middle molecules can be defined as molecules that are “difficult to remove by standard dialysis strategies.” Middle molecules might at the same time be protein bound; in that case, these are mentioned under the heading of protein-bound molecules as well as under that of middle molecules.

  • c AGE exist in their free form or are incorporated into amino acids, peptides, and proteins by irreversible linking; this is a different way of protein binding as compared with the relatively reversible links for most other protein-bound compounds.

  • d Although these guanidino compounds are small water-soluble solutes, they nevertheless have a different kinetic behavior compared with the prototypic water-soluble compound urea.\