Table 2.

Currently applied pharmacologic strategies to prevent uremic complicationsa

AspirinDecrease procoagulant and proinflammatory effects
AST-120Adsorb indoxyl sulfate
AntihypertensivesDecrease hypertension and preserve kidney function
ACEi, ARB, and/or renin inhibitorsDecrease hypertension
Preserve kidney and heart function
Inhibition of AGE generation
β blockersDecrease hypertension
Neutralize catecholamines
DiureticsDecrease hypertension
Combat fluid overload
StatinsCombat dyslipidemia
Phosphate binders
    calcium containingDecrease P, PTH
    non–calcium containingDecrease Ca × P, P, PTH
ESACombat anemia
Folic acidDecrease homocysteine
Resins (e.g., kayexalate)Decrease potassium
  • a ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; Ca × P, calcium-phosphate product; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents; P, phosphate; PTH, parathyroid hormone.