Table 3.

Potential targets for the neutralization of uremic effectsa

Activity of receptors
Changes in intracellular calcium level
    influx of intracellular calcium
    release of calcium from intracellular stores
    activity of Ca2+-ATPase
Activation/inhibition of MAPK
    ERK1/2
    JNK
    P38
Activation/inhibition of transcription factors
    NF-κB
    AP-1
Activation/inhibition of PKC
Generation of ROS
    inhibition of production
    neutralization
Effects at the transcriptional level (mRNA)
Effects at the posttranscriptional level
  • a AP-1, activator protein-1; extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2; JNK, C-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; ROS, reactive oxygen species.