Table 3.

Potential targets for the neutralization of uremic effectsa

Activity of receptors
Changes in intracellular calcium level
    influx of intracellular calcium
    release of calcium from intracellular stores
    activity of Ca2+-ATPase
Activation/inhibition of MAPK
Activation/inhibition of transcription factors
Activation/inhibition of PKC
Generation of ROS
    inhibition of production
Effects at the transcriptional level (mRNA)
Effects at the posttranscriptional level
  • a AP-1, activator protein-1; extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2; JNK, C-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; ROS, reactive oxygen species.