Table 1.

Characteristics of the participants at baseline in 1994 by ACR quintilesa

CharacteristicACR Quintiles (mg/mmol)P Trend
0.00 to 0.34 (n = 1085)0.34 to 0.47 (n = 1085)0.47 to 0.66 (n = 1085)0.66 to 1.11 (n = 1085)1.11 to 24.82 (n = 1085)
Age (yr; mean [SD])57.6 (10.0)58.2 (10.6)59.3 (10.4)60.0 (10.2)63.0 (8.9)<0.001
Male gender (% [n])61 (671)53 (581)47 (514)46 (497)58 (617)0.004
BMI (kg/m2; mean [SD])25.9 (3.3)26.0 (3.7)25.9 (3.9)25.9 (4.0)26.2 (4.3)0.151
Systolic BP (mmHg; mean [SD])140.5 (19.0)140.9 (20.0)142.5 (20.5)145.9 (22.1)151.1 (24.6)<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg; mean [SD])81.4 (11.5)81.4 (11.7)82.4 (11.9)83.9 (12.5)86.9 (14.5)<0.001
Ever use of medication for hypertension (% [n])12 (117)12 (121)14 (152)19 (210)26 (301)<0.001
Glycated hemoglobin (%; mean [SD])5.40 (0.44)5.38 (0.37)5.41 (0.61)5.40 (0.49)5.45 (0.64)0.015
Serum creatinine (μmol/L; mean [SD])81.20 (16.10)79.96 (13.61)77.68 (14.10)76.45 (14.87)79.26 (20.48)0.001
Use of ACEI/ARB (% [n])2 (18)2 (23)2 (19)3 (31)5 (61)<0.001
Cardiovascular diseases (% [n])10 (106)10 (96)12 (125)15 (158)17 (206)<0.001
Physically inactive (% [n])40 (411)37 (392)40 (435)40 (438)41 (447)0.414
Alcohol abstainer (% [n])17 (159)18 (188)21 (237)20 (233)18 (211)0.508
Smoking habits (% [n])<0.001
    never smokers34 (340)32 (342)34 (380)32 (363)28 (293)
    ex-smokers, <10 cigarettes/d13 (136)14 (145)13 (150)13 (138)11 (135)
    ex-smokers, ≥10 cigarettes/d26 (297)25 (270)23 (236)21 (216)20 (238)
    current smokers, <10 cigarettes/d9 (96)9 (93)9 (102)12 (130)11 (124)
    current smokers, 10 to 19 cigarettes/d14 (161)16 (178)15 (157)17 (187)22 (222)
    current smokers, ≥20 cigarettes/d4 (55)5 (55)6 (60)5 (51)7 (72)
Fibrinogen (g/L; mean [SD])3.29 (0.79)3.35 (0.86)3.29 (0.80)3.32 (0.82)3.48 (0.89)<0.001
WBC count (× 109/L; mean [SD])6.86 (1.90)6.80 (1.78)6.74 (1.77)6.98 (1.77)7.19 (1.89)<0.001
  • a Means and percentages are adjusted for age and gender. Values of age are adjusted for gender; percentages for gender are adjusted for age. ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers.