Table 1.

Baseline characteristics and final kidney function by gender-specific quartile of uric acid for the creatinine-based cohorta

CharacteristicUric Acid QuartileTotals (n = 13,338)
1 (≤5.6 mg/dl in Men, ≤4.4 mg/dl in Women) (n = 3460; 25.9%)2 (5.6 to ≤6.4 mg/dl in Men, 4.4 to ≤5.2 mg/dl in Women) (n = 3394; 25.4%)3 (6.4 to ≤7.4 mg/dl in Men, 5.2 to ≤6.1 mg/dl in Women) (n = 3317; 24.9%)4 (>7.4 mg/dl in Men, >6.1 mg/dl in Women) (n = 3167; 23.7%)
Demographics
    age (yr; mean ± SD)58.1 ± 9.957.4 ± 9.157.1 ± 8.557.0 ± 8.357.4 ± 9.0
    female (%)57.458.353.357.456.6b
    black (%)13.815.818.127.418.0
    high school graduate (%)82.282.381.076.280.5
    ARIC (%)73.679.983.085.380.3
Medical history (%)
    diabetes7.05.75.77.76.5b
    hypertension28.933.038.159.239.4
    CVD11.412.112.415.112.7
    current smoker22.519.818.117.019.4
    current alcohol use57.859.659.555.858.2b
    diuretic use7.210.716.234.516.8
    ACEI use3.45.14.68.15.0b
Physical findings
    SBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)120.1 ± 19.2121.2 ± 19.0121.9 ± 18.3125.7 ± 17.7122.2 ± 18.7
    DBP (mmHg; mean ± SD)70.7 ± 10.671.8 ± 10.472.9 ± 10.674.9 ± 10.972.5 ± 10.7
    LVH (%)1.11.21.32.71.5
    BMI (kg/m2; mean ± SD)25.1 ± 3.826.4 ± 4.427.8 ± 4.629.9 ± 5.427.2 ± 4.9
Laboratory results
    serum creatinine (mg/dl; mean ± SD)0.8 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.2
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean ± SD)94.8 ± 19.690.8 ± 19.089.2 ± 18.786.5 ± 19.390.4 ± 19.4
    hematocrit (%; mean ± SD)41.3 ± 3.841.5 ± 3.842.0 ± 3.742.1 ± 3.941.7 ± 3.8
    total cholesterol (mg/dl; mean ± SD)208.3 ± 37.7212.0 ± 39.1216.1 ± 41.0219.9 ± 43.0213.9 ± 40.4
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl; mean ± SD)57.0 ± 17.254.1 ± 16.750.9 ± 16.348.2 ± 15.352.7 ± 16.8
    albumin (g/dl; mean ± SD)4.1 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.3
Final laboratory results (mean ± SD)
    serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.9 ± 0.30.9 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.40.9 ± 0.3
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)84.6 ± 18.382.0 ± 17.681.4 ± 17.779.3 ± 20.281.9 ± 18.6
Incident kidney disease (%)
    creatinine based1.91.71.73.92.3
    eGFR based4.64.74.98.25.5
  • a Final eGFR is based on the smaller cohort of 12,819 individuals, because more individuals were excluded for reduced baseline eGFR. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use is for the CHS cohort only. Incident kidney disease defined by creatinine incorporates 13,338 individuals; incident kidney disease defined by eGFR incorporates 12,819 individuals. ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic BP; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy.

    P < 0.0001 for trend for all comparisons across groups except

  • b P < 0.01.