Table 1.

Characteristics of all participants recruited at the STENO Diabetes Centera

CharacteristicHealthy Controls(n = 30)Normoalbuminuria(n = 30)Microalbuminuria(n = 29)Diabetic Nephropathy(n = 30)P (Normo- versus Macroalbuminuria)P (All Groups)
Age51 (1.9)54 (2.0)56 (1.8)50 (1.6)0.1200.070
Gender (female/male; mean [SE])7/237/237/227/230.9900.990
Diabetes duration (yr; mean [SE])34 (1.9)35 (2.0)34 (2.0)
Diabetic retinopathy (nil/simple/proliferative)2/12/161/9/192/7/210.2300.990
Urinary albumin/creatinine (geometric mean [95% CI]5 (4 to 6)45 (32 to 63)765 (564 to 1036)
Systolic BP (mmHg; mean [SE])133 (3)136 (3)148 (4)142 (4)0.2800.020
Diastolic BP (mmHg; mean [SE])80 (2)77 (2)75 (2)77 (2)0.9800.240
Cholesterol (mmol/L; mean [SE])5.6 (0.1)4.6 (0.2)4.9 (0.2)4.6 (0.2)0.370<0.001
Creatinine (μmol/L; mean [SE])97 (2)94 (2)94 (3)171 (15)<0.001<0.001
Hemoglobin A1c (%; mean [SE])5.4 (0.1)8.0 (0.2)8.9 (0.3)8.8 (0.2)0.0150<0.001