Table 3.

Adjusted OR of metabolic complicationsa according to patient characteristics

ParameterHyperparathyroidism (OR [95% CI])Anemia (OR [95% CI])Acidosis (OR [95% CI])Hyperkalemia (OR [95% CI])Hyperphosphatemia (OR [95% CI])
Age <65 versus ≥65 yr1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)1.7 (1.1 to 2.7)1.3 (0.8 to 2.0)4.2 (2.1 to 8.5)
Men versus women1.4 (0.9 to 1.8)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)2.0 (1.2 to 3.0)1.7 (0.9 to 3.2)
Black versus white2.8 (1.4 to 5.5)1.9 (0.9 to 4.0)0.5 (0.2 to 1.4)0.4 (0.1 to 1.1)0.3 (0.1 to 1.7)
Renal disease
    glomerulonephritisReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    vascular nephropathy1.4 (0.9 to 2.3)0.6 (0.3 to 1.3)1.3 (0.7 to 2.4)0.7 (0.4 to 1.2)0.9 (0.4 to 2.1)
    diabetic kidney disease1.4 (0.7 to 2.8)2.6 (1.1 to 5.8)0.8 (0.4 to 1.9)1.4 (0.6 to 3.2)2.1 (0.6 to 7.6)
    tubulointerstitial nephritis1.7 (0.9 to 3.2)1.0 (0.6 to 1.8)1.7 (0.9 to 3.4)1.1 (0.5 to 2.2)1.8 (0.7 to 4.4)
    polycystic kidney disease1.3 (0.6 to 2.9)1.7 (0.8 to 3.2)1.4 (0.5 to 3.5)0.5 (0.2 to 1.4)0.9 (0.3 to 3.6)
    undetermined1.0 (0.6 to 1.8)1.5 (0.6 to 3.5)0.6 (0.3 to 1.4)0.7 (0.3 to 1.4)1.3 (0.6 to 3.3)
Diabetes, yes versus no1.1 (0.6 to 1.7)1.2 (0.7 to 2.1)1.9 (1.1 to 3.5)0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)0.9 (0.3 to 2.6)
BMI (kg/m2)
    <25ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    25 to 301.1 (0.7 to 1.5)0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)0.8 (0.5 to 1.4)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)
    >301.5 (0.9 to 2.3)0.6 (0.3 to 0.9)0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)1.2 (0.6 to 2.6)
BP > versus ≤130/80 mmHg1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)1.1 (0.6 to 1.9)
Proteinuriab0.9 (0.8 to 1.2)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)0.9 (0.7 to 1.4)0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)
ACEi/ARB, yes versus no1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.9 (0.6 to 1.5)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)3.4 (1.8 to 6.2)1.1 (0.5 to 2.2)
mGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)0.4 (0.5 to 0.6)0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)0.4 (0.3 to 0.5)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)
  • a Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a PTH >60 pg/ml or active vitamin D treatment; anemia was defined as Hb <110 g/L according to K/DOQI-based criteria or ESA treatment; acidosis was defined as a tCO2 <22 mmol/L or bicarbonate treatment; hyperkalemia was defined as a plasma potassium concentration >5 mmol/L or ion exchange resin treatment; hyperphosphatemia was defined as a plasma phosphate concentration >4.3 mg/dl (>1.38 mmol/L) or phosphate binder treatment.

  • b Proteinuria in three classes (<0.5, 0.5 to 1.0, ≥1.0 g/g) treated as a continuous variable.

    ACEi/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; mGFR, measured glomerular filtration rate; eGFRcl, estimated glomerular filtration rate, using the MDRD Study equation with serum creatinine values calibrated by the Cleveland Clinic Laboratory; eGFRms, eGFR using the MDRD equation with serum creatinine values standardized to mass spectrometry.