Table 2.

Cross-sectional associations of serum phosphate concentration with prevalent calcificationa

Site% Prevalent CalcificationModel 1bModel 2c
PR95% CIPR95% CI
Coronary artery (mg/dl)
    <3.0581.00Reference1.00Reference
    3.0 to 3.5661.110.90 to 1.381.100.89 to 1.38
    3.6 to 4.0671.311.04 to 1.651.271.00 to 1.61
    >4.0751.541.21 to 1.941.421.11 to 1.82
    P for trend<0.0010.001
Descending thoracic aorta (mg/dl)
    <3.0341.00Reference1.00Reference
    3.0 to 3.5491.220.89 to 1.691.320.95 to 1.83
    3.6 to 4.0511.421.02 to 2.001.461.03 to 2.07
    >4.0571.691.22 to 2.451.801.25 to 2.61
    P for trend<0.001<0.001
Aortic valve (mg/dl)
    <3.0201.00Reference1.00Reference
    3.0 to 3.5281.280.77 to 2.141.310.77 to 2.23
    3.6 to 4.0231.370.80 to 2.371.400.79 to 2.47
    >4.0261.680.93 to 3.031.650.90 to 3.06
    P for trend0.0500.240
Mitral valve (mg/dl)
    <3.0161.00Reference1.00Reference
    3.0 to 3.5191.090.59 to 2.011.340.70 to 2.56
    3.6 to 4.0211.540.83 to 2.871.750.92 to 3.35
    >4.0231.931.00 to 3.732.011.00 to 4.07
    P for trend<0.0010.030
  • a CI, confidence interval.

  • b Model 1 adjusted for age, race, and gender.

  • c Model 2 adds cystatin C, BMI, smoking (ever versus never), diabetes, DBP, LDL cholesterol, ln(C-reactive protein), ln(urinary albumin to creatinine ratio), serum calcium, and serum 1,25-(OH)2D levels.