Table 4.

Associations of serum phosphate concentration with the severity of calcification among participants with site-specific prevalent calcification

SiteNModel 1aModel 2b
Exp(β)c95% CIPdExp(β)c95% CIPd
Coronary artery2931.641.16 to 2.320.0051.701.12 to 2.560.010
Descending aorta2151.060.70 to 1.610.7701.190.72 to 1.980.500
Aortic valve1090.890.55 to 1.420.6100.760.40 to 1.440.400
Mitral valve870.890.45 to 1.740.7201.600.53 to 4.830.400
  • a Model 1 adjusted for age, race, and gender.

  • b Model 2 adds cystatin C, BMI, smoking (ever versus never), diabetes, DBP, LDL cholesterol, ln(C-reactive protein), ln(urinary albumin to creatinine ratio), serum calcium, and serum 1,25-(OH)2D levels.

  • c Exp(β) interpreted as relative difference in geometric mean CAC score per each 1-mg/dl higher serum phosphate level.

  • d P values not adjusted for multiple comparisons.