Table 1.

Baseline characteristics at study inception (n = 3015)a

CharacteristicValue
Phosphorus (mg/dl)
    mean (SD)3.6 (0.5)
    range1.3 to 5.7
Calcium (mg/dl)
    mean (SD)9.5 (0.5)
    range7.1 to 13.2
Calcium-phosphorus product (mg2/dl2)
    mean (SD)26.3 (14.5)
    range3.0 to 55.1
Age (yr)
    mean (SD)25.2 (3.6)
    range18.0 to 30.0
Women (%)54.4
Race (%)
    white55.0
    black45.0
Education <12 yr (%)7.2
Cigarette smoker (%)26.5
Hypertension (%)b8.9
Diabetes (%)b0.8
Family history of MI (%)14.1
BMI (kg/m2)
    mean (SD)24.3 (4.4)
    range17.0 to 45.8
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
    mean (SD)109.9 (30.8)
    range20.0 to 260.0
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
    mean (SD)53.3 (13.0)
    range22.0 to 142.0
Triglycerides (mg/dl)
    mean (SD)72.3 (48.7)
    range16.0 to 932.0
Glucose (mg/dl)
    mean (SD)82.3 (13.4)
    range37.0 to 457.0
SBP (mmHg)
    mean (SD)110.2 (10.8)
    range75.0 to 161.0
DBP (mmHg)
    mean (SD)68.5 (9.6)
    range6.0 to 113.0
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    mean (SD)116.6 (30.7)
    range3.9 to 521.9
Exercise intensity score
    mean (SD)422.1 (303.0)
    range0.0 to 2126.0
Phosphorus intake (mg/d)
    mean (SD)1766.0 (1007.0)
    range202.5 to 16,083.0
Calcium intake (mg/d)
    mean (SD)1235.7 (825.4)
    range101.1 to 11,685.0
Calorie intake (kcal/d)
    mean (SD)2813.2 (1570.0)
    range533.2 to 28,385.1
Carbohydrate intake (g/d)
    mean (SD)324.5 (179.5)
    range63.4 to 2720.9
Fat intake (g/d)
    mean (SD)117.4 (71.5)
    range11.5 to 1226.6
Protein intake (g/d)
    mean (SD)102.7 (57.1)
    range12.3 to 964.2
Alcohol intake (g/d)
    mean (SD)11.3 (20.5)
    range0.0 to 371.3
Medications (%)
    asthma1.6
    hypertension1.3
    cardiac0.8
    hormonal1.8
  • a Missing data: BMI for nine participants; LDL and HDL cholesterol for six participants; triglycerides for seven participants, glucose for 19 participants.

  • b Self-reported.