Table 1.

Baseline characteristics recorded before active run-ina

VariableRandomized Treatment
Perindopril-Indapamide (n = 5569)Placebo (n = 5571)
Age (yr; mean [SD])66 (6)66 (7)
Female (n [%])2366 (42.5)2369 (42.5)
Age when diabetes first diagnosed (yr; mean [SD])58 (9)58 (9)
Duration of diabetes (yr; mean [SD])8 (6)8 (6)
BP control (mmHg; mean [SD])
    SBP145 (22)145 (21)
    DBP81 (11)81 (11)
    history of currently treated hypertension (n [%])3802 (68.3)3853 (69.2)
Renal parameters
    UACR (μg/mg; median [IQR])15 (7 to 40)15 (7 to 40)
    microalbuminuria (n [%])1441 (25.9)1421 (25.5)
    macroalbuminuria (n [%])b197 (3.5)204 (3.7)
    serum creatinine (μmol/L; mean [SD])c87 (23)87 (26)
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2; mean [SD])78 (25)78 (25)
    eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n [%])1063 (19.1)1094 (19.6)
Previous vascular disease
    history of major macrovascular disease (n [%])1798 (32.3)1792 (32.2)
    history of myocardial infarction (n [%])678 (12.2)656 (11.8)
    history of stroke (n [%])502 (9.0)520 (9.3)
    history of microvascular eye disease (n [%])d389 (7.0)404 (7.3)
Other major risk factors
    current smoker (n [%])804 (14.4)878 (15.8)
    serum total cholesterol (mmol/L; mean [SD])e5.2 (1.2)5.2 (1.2)
    serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/L; mean [SD])e1.3 (0.3)1.3 (0.4)
    serum HbA1c concentration (%; mean [SD])7.5 (1.6)7.5 (1.6)
    body weight (kg; mean [SD])78.3 (16.8)78.0 (16.8)
    BMI (kg/m2; mean [SD])28.3 (5.2)28.3 (5.1)
    waist-to-hip ratio (mean [SD])0.93 (0.08)0.93 (0.08)
Region of origin (n [%])
    Europe2539 (45.6)2544 (45.7)
    Asia2070 (37.2)2066 (37.1)
Treatment (n [%])
    ACEIs2402 (43.1)2388 (42.9)
    ARBs289 (5.2)320 (5.7)
    calcium channel blockers1669 (30.0)1758 (31.6)
    β blockers1344 (24.1)1385 (24.9)
    diuretics1260 (22.6)1247 (22.4)
    antiplatelets2597 (46.6)2601 (46.7)
    lipid-modifying drugs1938 (34.8)1996 (35.8)
  • a Reprinted in part from Patel et al.,18 with permission from Elsevier. ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; IQR, interquartile range.

  • b UACR >300 μg/mg.

  • c To convert values to mg/dl, divide by 88.4.

  • d Proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal photocoagulation therapy, macular edema, or blindness in one eye thought to be caused by diabetes.

  • e To convert values to mg/dl, divide by 0.259.