Table 2.

HRs of potential risk factors for progression to ESRDa

ParameterAge-Adjusted VariablesBest Clinical ModelBest Clinical + eGFR + ACR
HR95% CIPHR95% CIPHR95% CIP
Age (per 10 yr)1.721.48 to 1.99<0.0011.150.98 to 1.350.073
Male gender2.131.50 to 3.07<0.0012.221.49 to 3.31<0.0011.240.83 to 1.860.296
Low educationb1.090.61 to 1.940.768
Depressionc1.320.91 to 1.920.139
Current smoking0.920.56 to 1.490.735
Low physical activityd1.741.15 to 2.630.0091.711.13 to 2.600.0121.230.81 to 1.870.337
Diabetes2.681.68 to 4.27<0.0011.801.11 to 2.900.0160.870.53 to 1.430.585
CVDe1.260.82 to 1.930.288
BMI (per 1-kg/m2)1.061.02 to 1.100.004
Waist circumference (per 10-cm)1.381.19 to 1.61<0.001
Systolic BP (per 10-mmHg)1.171.09 to 1.26<0.0011.161.07 to 1.25<0.0011.040.97 to 1.120.245
Diastolic BP (per 10-mmHg)1.161.02 to 1.320.018
Antihypertensive treatment2.982.08 to 4.32<0.0012.381.62 to 3.50<0.0011.080.69 to 1.680.731
Cholesterol (per 40-mg/dl)1.090.96 to 1.250.197
HDL cholesterol (per 4-mg/dl)0.850.81 to 0.91<0.0010.900.85 to 0.95<0.0010.960.91 to 1.020.129
Triglycerides (per 80-mg/dl)1.251.16 to 1.35<0.001
Glucose (per 20-mg/dl)1.101.04 to 1.16<0.001
Renal function (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
    eGFR ≥601.001.00
    eGFR 45 to 5911.506.56 to 20.20<0.0016.703.78 to 11.90<0.001
    eGFR 30 to 4452.6029.60 to 93.40<0.00118.8010.30 to 34.40<0.001
    eGFR <30299.50165.60 to 541.80<0.00165.6035.20 to 122.10<0.001
ACR
    normal1.001.00
    microalbuminuriaf18.509.90 to 34.70<0.00113.006.76 to 25.1<0.001
    macroalbuminuria193.7094.60 to 396.70<0.00147.5019.8 to 109.0<0.001
  • a Age-adjusted HRs associated with all available potential risk factors based on Cox regression analysis are given. A best clinical model was then identified by manual forward selection among the significant variables. Finally, eGFR and ACR were added to the best clinical model.

  • b Fewer than 12 yr in school.

  • c Eight points or more on the depression part of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score.

  • d Less than 1 h of light activity per week in participants’ leisure time.

  • e Self-reported history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or stroke.

  • f ACR ranging from 20 to 200 mg/g in men and 30 to 300 mg/g in women.